THE BOOK OF THE FAIR: Chapter the Twenty-Sixth:
World's Congress Auxiliary
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 - Of the origin and purposes of the Congress Auxiliary, its scope and character, mention has been made in an early chapter of this work, in connection with Exposition management. As stated in substance by the officials themselves, its general objects may thus be briefly recapitulated. As an adjunct or supplement to the Fair, it was intended to provide for a fitting representation of the intellectual and moral progress and condition of the civilized world, with the assistance of the foremost men and women in each department. Here was a convenient time and place in which the members of kindred organizations might assemble for the consideration of living questions relating to every phase of civilized life; might prepared and in a measure secure the execution of more comprehensive plans than had ever before been formulated "to promote the progress, prosperity, unity, peace, and happiness of the world."
It was in truth an ambitious programme; but one which, as I have said, received the endorsement and cooperation of acknowledged leaders in every sphere of human thought and achievement. It was, moreover, a novel feature in the annals of international expositions; nor was it merely an appendage but an integral part of the Fair, one sanctioned by congress and authorized by the directory. Here expression was given to the subjective, just as in the material display were expressed the objective conditions and relations of modern civilization. Of those who attended or took part in the meetings a large proportion were foreigners, and to many the congresses were the most interesting portion of the Exposition. Coming as they did from cities better governed, more favored as to social environment, and with more of the comforts and amenities of life, they had now an opportunity such as never before existed for investigating, discussing, and comparing with their own the political, industrial, and other aspects of a nation whose existence is counted by decades instead of by centuries, and yet has solved not a few of the problems with which the old world is struggling.
The congresses were held in the Art Institute recently erected on the lake front, in the business quarter of Chicago, and containing two large auditoria, named Columbus and Washington halls, each with a seating capacity of 3,000 persons, these with smaller chambers permitting a series of meetings to be held simultaneously. Funds for the occasion were in liberal supply, the Exposition directory contributing $200,000, or one fourth of the total cost of the building, on condition that it be placed at the disposal of the congresses during the term of the Fair. The total attendance at all the sessions of the various departments was little short of 1,000,000, of whom at least two thirds were women, the audiences being mainly composed of the more intelligent classes, whether Chicagonese or pilgrims of the Fair.
 As first it was organized, woman was entirely unrepresented in the Congress Auxiliary; and as in other departments, the prominent part that was later accorded to women was largely due to the efforts of Mrs. Potter Palmer, as president of the Board of Lady Managers. Addressing a letter to the authorities, she asked that women and their interests be represented at its gatherings. The request was granted without demur, and it was further stated that no committee of women had been appointed merely because such a demand had been anticipated, the managers preferring that the suggestion should reach them from those who had women�s interests in charge. Thereupon a woman�s branch was established, with Mrs. Palmer as president, and as vice-president Mrs. Charles Henrotin, than whom none are better versed or more deeply interested in social and humanitarian questions. The result was not only a congress of representative women, attended by women from every quarter of the world; but that in the nineteen congresses held between May and October for the discussion of subjects ranging from political science to household economics, women took part in all but three, these being electricity, engineering, and real estate.
First on the list were the congresses of representative women, their formal opening being on Monday, the 15th of May, and their sessions lasting the entire week. As stated by Mrs. Henrotin, their purposes "included a presentation of the different fields of work in which women were extensively engaged, either as teachers, workers in the trades, in the liberal professions, or in philanthropic work." Though up to the middle of May the average attendance at the Fair was less than 30,000 a day, against 270,000 for its closing month, the women�s congresses were far more successful than many that were held much later in the season. This was due not only to the fusion of the more important women�s associations throughout the United States, but to the participation of foreign societies, whose representatives were here in force. On the first day the exercises began with an address from the president, Charles C. Bonney, who reviewed the origin and development of the Congress Auxiliary, presenting briefly an outline of its general plan, and acknowledging his indebtedness to eminent men and women for their suggestions, encouragement, and cooperation. As president of the woman�s branch, Mrs. Palmer delivered an address of welcome, followed by Mrs. Henrotin and Mrs. May Wright Sewall, who spoke of the part that women would play in the congresses. Then came the introduction of foreign representatives, with responses on behalf of foreign countries, this being continued at the evening session. Here was manifested the world-wide participation in the congresses; for among those introduced were women from nearly all European countries; from Canada, Iceland, Australia, and South America; other sessions being attended also by women from India, China, and Japan, from Mexico and Central America, though from the United States came more delegates than from all other countries combined.
On the following day an address was delivered in Washington hall by Elizabeth Cady Stanton on the civil and social evolution of woman, followed by one from Marie Stromberg on the evolution of Russian woman. At the evening session Julia Ward Howe spoke of the moral initiative as related to woman, and Kate Tupper Galpin of California, on the ethical influence of woman in education. In Columbus hall the subjects treated were woman in relation to government and civil law, to science and industrial economics, one of the best papers being read by Lady Aberdeen, who selected as her theme woman as an actual force in politics. Thus the sessions were continued throughout the week, the topics covering the range already indicated. Senorita d�Alcala lectured on woman in Spain for the last four centuries; Madame Quesada and Baroness Wilson on woman�s position in the South American states; Madame Janauschek described woman�s place in the legitimate drama; Georgia Cayvan, the stage and its women; Modjeska, the endowed theatre,  and Clara Morris, woman in the emotional drama. An interesting paper on a century of progress for women in Canada was read by a representative of the dominion. Others were on woman as a religious teacher, and educator, a writer, an artist, and in relation to trades and professions. These, however, form but a portion of the questions considered, the reading of some of the papers being followed by brief discussions on their subject matter.
Meanwhile other sessions and informal conference were held in the minor halls, at which was treated even a wider range of subjects, one of which related to woman�s dress and especially to dress reform. Lucy Stone advocated the Bloomer costume which years ago, in conjunction with Susan b. Anthony, she tried in vain to introduce, while Frances M. Steele would have her sex return to the clinging, transparent drapery of the Greeks. At these auxiliary meetings were represented many women�s associations, clubs, and leagues, among the speakers being Julia Ward Howe, Susan B. Anthony, Florence Fenwick Miller, Mary Livermore, Laura Ormiston-Chant, Clara Barton, Mary Frost Ormsby, Jane Cobden Unwin, and other too numerous here to be mentioned. On the Sabbath services were conducted entirely by women, a feature being the Marche Triomphale, rendered by the largest harp orchestra ever assembled in the United States.
Next to the congresses of representative women came those of representative journalists belonging to all departments of the press, the daily and weekly journals, religious, professional, trade, and scientific journals, with magazines and periodicals. As stated by the management, it was intended to provide for a proper presentation of the work and influence of the public press; to bring the most active and potent agencies of public opinion into more harmonious and useful relations, and as far as practicable to enable those who attended to see and hear the masters of journalism. The themes to be discussed were not chosen for special writers, but the writers for the themes, all the topics being carefully considered and the best men selected to give them fitting expression. Among them were the origin and development of the press; its duties, rights, and privileges; its legal and moral responsibilities; together with the art of news gathering, of reporting public proceedings, and of editorial comment.
On the 22d of May the press congresses were formally opened with an afternoon reception, followed in the evening by addresses of welcome and other speech-making. On the following day a session was held in Columbus hall, William P. Nixon as chairman introducing Alexander McClure, editor of the Philadelphia Times, who contrasted the power of the press and pulpit, claiming that the press had done more to conserve and liberalize the pulpit than all other causes combined. In other vein spoke Murat Halstead, who has been termed the field-marshal of journalism. "There is a tendency," he said, "to claim too much for our work. Those of the press, if they are wise, will not assume that they are dedicated or consecrated more than other folk. They are not a sacred tribe nor a holy order, and though it may be well to urge reform, it is not well to make a fad of crusading. If the press would guide it must not drive, and while some have too little sincerity, others are earnest over much."
By each department of the press, religious, scientific, commercial, and others, separate meetings were held, some of the foremost journalists in Europe and the United States taking part in their proceedings; such men as M. de Blowitz, correspondent of the London Times; William T. Stead, editor of the Review of Reviews; John Brisbane Walker of the Cosmopolitan; Albert Shaw and Irving Brown of New York, and Joseph Howard, these being but a few of the men who passed a pleasant week in friendly intercourse, in sight-seeing, feasting, and merry-making.
Women were largely represented at the press congresses, holding separate sessions by day and attending at night the general meetings held in Columbus or Washington hall. The subjects discussed related to women�s work in journalism, their duties
 responsibilities, and qualifications; what they could do in each department as news gatherers, as critics, editors and publishers. Then there were considered what may be termed the ethics of journalism; matters pertaining to personal fitness and conduct, with the relations of journalists to society, and especially how news may be obtained without violating the sacred privacy of home. Among the speakers were Mary H. Krout, chairman of the woman�s committee, Helen M. Winslow, Kate Field, Mrs, Frank Sheldon, Mrs. Pauline G. Swalm, Mrs. J. C. Croly, Mrs. Lilian Whiting, Catherine E. Conway, Clara Bewick, and Susan B. Anthony. At the general sessions for men and women there were no prolonged debates; controversial points were avoided, and the problems of journalism freely and impartially discussed by the foremost members of the profession.
In the medical congresses which followed, a wide range of subjects was considered, both of a popular and scientific nature, including not only medicine and surgery, but dentistry, pharmacy, and medical jurisprudence, public health and the effect of climatic and geographical conditions in relation to health. Though many eminent men were present, the regular school of physicians was but imperfectly represented, for before the announcement of the medical congresses arrangements had been made for a general meeting in Rome. The eclectics and homoeopathists predominated, the congress of the latter being in connection with the American institute of homoeopathy.
At the opening session, on the 29th of May, there were the usual addresses of welcome, Marie E. Reasner speaking for her sex as chairman of the congress of eclectic physicians, while Alexander Wilder claimed that in the eclectic school, as founded by Americans, lay the hidden secrets of the art of healing. In the afternoon the homoeopathic hospital, near the Woman�s building, was dedicated as official headquarters, and earlier in the day the homoeopathic congress was inaugurated in Washington hall, with J. S. Mitchell as chairman and Julia Holmes Smith in charge of the woman�s branch. In the hall of Columbus the congress of medico-climatology also held a session, among the speakers being Charles C. Bonney, Carter Harrison, and Roland G. Curtin, president of the National climatological association.
Throughout the week the several sections of the medical congresses presented topics of general, as well as of special interest. Women had much to say about the ills of their sex and of their offspring, especially as to the use of tobacco and liquor by fathers and of tea and coffee by mothers. Improper food and the nursing bottle were pronounced to be the cause of many of the diseases common to children, accounting also for weakly muscles and  awkward gait. Such matters were considered as the relation of homoeopathy to public health, the future of the school and its status in European countries. The afternoon sessions were devoted to subjects classified under the sections of surgery, gynecology, materia medica, clinical medicine, opthalmology, otology, laryngology, and paedotrophy, the last named department being the one in which women explained their theories as to the scientific nourishment of children. During these meetings the fact was noticeable that surgery in relation to other branches of medical science occupied most attention, and the same remark applies to the deliberations of the eclectic physicians and surgeons, their sessions concluding with the proceedings of the surgical department, of which R. A. Gunn of New York was president.
But of all the sessions perhaps the most popular were those in which representatives were present from India, China, Japan, Australia, Hawaii; from Russia, Italy, France, Switzerland, and other European lands; from South and Central America; from Mexico, and from every state in the union; physicians from all parts of the world assembling together to tell what they knew as to the effects of meteorological conditions on the human system. By one was discussed the effect of altitude upon heart and lung diseases, or a combination of both; by others the influence of elevated regions in relation to various ills. The results of bathing were considered, and the advantages and disadvantages of sea voyages, while even such lofty themes were propounded as planetary influence upon the human body. The world itself was treated geographically, and those who knew whereof they spoke informed their hearers on such specific matters as the cause of eye diseases in Russian and Japan, and the effects of Chicago climate on the nasal and respiratory membranes. Consumption was a favorite topic, theories supported by arguments and statistics being advanced as to the influence of climate on this disease in the United States, in Canada, Mexico, Europe, China, India, Japan, Siberia, Africa, and Australia. Exercise and occupation were deemed important considerations in the treatment of consumption, and an instructive sub-topic was developed in the suggestion of national reservations for consumptives.
What may be termed a side issue of the medical congresses was a session of army surgeons, held in the Government building on the 9th of August, with Surgeon-general Senn as presiding officer, and attended, as were all the rest, by men of eminence in their profession; but as this was convened only for the discussion of special topics, and of little interest except to military men, it needs no other than passing mention. In the same month two days were devoted to the consideration of medical jursiprudence; much of the time being given to discussing the legal value of expert medical testimony. The degree of responsibility attaching to criminals of unsound minds, or when under the influence of liquor was among the mooted points, as also were the effects of opium on public health and morals, and the mysterious power of hypnotism, the latter treated solely from a scientific point of view.
During the first week of June was held a congress on social purity, Archbishop Ireland delivering the principal address at the opening session. The social evil was the main topic under consideration, and especially the licensing of that evil through legislative enactment. From England came a paper by Mrs. Josephine E. Butler on parliamentary recognition of immoral practices, and by other speakers were treated the regulation system in France, Germany, and British India. At a session held under the auspices of the Woman�s Christian Temperance union, one of the participants described her experience in connection with the Protective agency for women. Doctor do Costa spoke of the origin and purposes of the White Cross movement, introduced by himself and now freely aided by the churches, though without denominational bias.
The temperance congresses were held under the auspices of home and foreign temperance organizations, the representatives of many nations taking part in the discussions. As yet neither prohibition, local option, nor high license have gone far to remedy or even check the evil; and if in cities and states where prohibition laws are in force, the drinking habit is less prevalent than elsewhere, statistics do not show it. It was to consider the causes and remedies for this common failing of humanity that the congresses were assembled, Archbishop Ireland and Frances E. Willard, as presidents of the men�s and women�s conventions, arranging the necessary details.
In truth it was a worthy purpose for which they were assembled, and one that called for earnest consideration as among the most necessary and yet the most backward of social reforms. While the temperance movement is almost a century old, it is very far from converting the world to its cause. It was in 1808 that the first temperance association in the United States was formed in the New York town of Greenfield. Others followed quickly; but of all the doctrine was the moderate use and not the entire disuse even of distilled liquors, no restrictions being placed on indulgence in fermented drinks. That the crusade was not thus far of a serious nature appears in the by-laws of one of the societies, where, as a penalty for becoming intoxicated, any member so offending is required to treat all the other members. It was not until near the middle of the nineteenth century that the word "teetotaller" came into use, or that total abstinence was preached or practised even by a few. Thenceforth the movement rapidly increased,  organizations multiplying throughout Europe and the United States, with a total membership amounting far into the millions. Nevertheless the use and abuse of liquor has grown with the growth of population and of wealth, the sum thus yearly expended in the United States approximating the amount of the national debt, while in Great Britain, Germany, and Russia the consumption of intoxicating beverages is even on a larger scale.
At the temperance congresses held in June a feature was the convention of the Women�s Christian Temperance union, at which, as vice-president, Lady Henry Somerset presided, in absence of the president, Frances E. Willard. First spoke Charles C. Bonney and Mrs. Potter Palmer as presiding officers of the Auxiliary and of the woman�s branch, followed by Mrs. Henrotin and Doctor Strong, after whom Lady Somerset paid eloquent tribute to her colleague and later read her report. Archbishop Ireland briefly addressed the meeting, and at the first day�s session delegates from England, France, Australia, Canada, Iceland, and Japan told how the work was progressing in other lands. The following day was mainly devoted to business, varied with brief addresses, the reading of one of the reports being interrupted by a memorial service in honor of Mary Allen West, who, as a missionary of the union, journeyed more than 3,000 miles in Japan, and after delivering nearly 100 addresses, died among those whom she had converted to the cause of temperance.
Among the speakers was Susan B. Anthony, who also discoursed upon the question of woman suffrage. John Hall of New York delivered a brief address of congratulation and was followed by Wilbur F. Crafts of Pittsburgh, who proposed that in 1900 a series of meetings lasting the entire year be held at different points throughout the world. As superintendent of her department, Mary A. Hunt reported that a law had been passed in all but six of the states and territories providing for the instruction of pupils in what is termed scientific temperance, 13,000,000 children thus receiving a compulsory training which, it was hoped, would act as a safeguard against the use of liquor. Colonel Parker, grand secretary of the order, acted as spokesman of the Good Templars, who, he said, were working on parallel lines with the union. As wife of a former prohibition candidate for the presidency, Mrs. Bidwell spoke a few words on behalf of her husband. But perhaps the most telling speech of all was by Madame Zelma Borg, the Finland delegate, who declared that too much attention was being paid to the moral aspect of intemperance, and not enough to the physical. "Don�t harp so much" she  exclaimed, "on this devil, devil, devil business. Drunkenness is a physical defect, and our doctors should be brought to treat is as such." Thus the sessions were continued, the subject being treated in all its aspects by some of the foremost champions of the cause.
In the middle of June were held the congresses relating to moral and social reform, covering a wide range of subjects from philanthropy in its broadest sense to the management of soup houses and newsboys� homes. But as to the scope and purpose of these congresses I cannot do bettern than quote the words of Mrs. James M. Flower, chairman of committee, by whom in part they were organized. "This department," she says, "includes the public treatment of pauperism; the care of neglected, abandoned, and dependent children; the care and treatment of juvenile delinquents; the hospital for the sick; the training of nurses and dispensary work; the commitment, detention, care, and treatment of the insane; the custodial care and the training and development of idiots and feeble-minded children; the prevention and repression of crime; the punishment and reformation of criminals, and the organization and affiliation of charities in cities. The department further includes the work of benevolent orders and associations of all kinds whose efforts are directed to the amelioration of social conditions."
Many were the associations represented at these meetings, and as most of them were controlled by women entirely or in part, the papers read were mainly prepared by women. Among those which attracted most attention was the congress of king�s daughters and sons, an international organization of which nearly a thousand members were present. The opening was of a religious character, beginning with the singing of the "Coronation Hymn," after which came scripture reading by Mary Lowe Dickinson and prayer by Isabella Charles Davis. Mrs. Henrotin spoke a few words of welcome, and was followed by Mrs. James M. Flower, chairman of the congresses. As president of the order, Mrs. Margaret Bottome spoke of the benefits which it had accomplished, telling of the letters she received from women far removed from all social privileges, yet in touch with the world through the efforts of the society, and aiding its cause so far as lay in their power. Other papers were read on this and the following day; Mary Lowe Dickinson, recording secretary, giving and outline of the work accomplished; Mrs. Elizabeth M. Tilley speaking in behalf of Canada; Mrs. Ida G. Stewart for Illinois; Miss M. Schott for Philadelphia; and Mrs. Margaret P. Bronson, who represented California, presenting to the president a Maltese cross of rare pebbles in the name of the members of the golden state.
At other congresses, both general and sectional topics of interest were also discussed. At the international congress of charities, correction, and philanthropy, a powerful address was delivered by Mrs. Emily E. Williamson, whose theme was "private unofficial supervision of public institutions in cooperation with official boards." On the subject of hospitals in relation to the public health a carefully studied paper was read by John S. Billings, an army surgeon, after which Henry C. Burdette, a specialist in London hospital work, spoke of hospital finances, and Colonel Nalter of the medical staff of the British army, on the applicability of hygiene to the conditions of modern warfare. A speech that called forth much discussion was on pauperism in the light of the theory of natural selection, by D. G. Ritchie of Oxford, England. On municipal reform a stirring dissertation was given by C. H. Parkhurst, whose persistent efforts in this direction have won for him more than a national repute. These, however, are but a few of the subjects presented, their general ranged being indicated in the remarks above quoted, all the topics mentioned by the chairman, to whom was largely due the success of these congresses, being treated on broad lines, and by men and women well informed on the matters whereof they spoke.
 - Next were held the congresses of commerce and finance, including among other subjects, railroads, boards of trade, banking, insurance, and building and loan associations. At the opening session the chairman spoke the usual words of welcome, George R. Blanchard, who responded on behalf of the railroads, reviewing briefly the history of railway transportation from 1828, when on the 4th of July, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, laid the corner stone of the Baltimore and Ohio line, until in 1893 more than 175,000 miles of track connected every portion of the union. On behalf of the board of trade, George F. Stone, its secretary, stated that in 1892 the board had distributed 256,000,000 bushels of grain and 14,000,000 animals on the hoof or as meat products. The cause of building and loan associations was championed by Julius Stern; insurance by John H. Nolan, and mercantile credits by P. R. Earling, who quoted the statement of Webster that credit did a hundred times more to enrich the nations than all the mines in the world.
The meeting of bankers and financiers on the 20th of June was among the most interesting of all the sessions of the Auxiliary; for here was considered one of the leading issues of the day, Horace White of New York speaking of the gold standard and of the silver question as one who had the subject well in hand. It is somewhat remarkable, however, that neither at this nor at nay other of the financial congresses was the real aspect of the silver question considered, as related to the appreciation in gold. This is simply that the production of silver in proportion to gold is and long has been in quantity as about 33 to one and in value as more than three to one, with a coinage for the last twenty years nearly thrice as large as for the twenty years preceding. Silver has declined for the same reason that iron has declined, or that breadstuffs have declined; mainly because the production of silver, as of iron and breadstuffs, is greater than the world requires.
Other addresses were by Lyman J. Gage, chairman of the congresses, Charles Parsons of St. Louis, Bradford Ross of New York, and J. J. P. Odell of Chicago. At a session of financiers held on the 22d, speeches were delivered by Davis Page of Philadelphia, J. W. Vernon of Providence, R. C. Lake of South Dakota, and J. W. Blake of Texas, Mrs. Henrotin speaking on the subject of women investors, and surprising her audience at the financial standing of women as shown by the reports of women presidents and cashiers of banks. On the same day the railroad and insurance men were in convention, W. G. Veazey and John W. Carey representing the former. For the latter Charles E. Kremer read a paper largely in insulation, and whether the electricity were generated in the building or came from a distance. Thomas J. Borden spoke of the method of reducing fire losses, which in the United States average about $125,000,000 a year. Wooden buildings, he said, could be rendered almost as safe as fire-proof structures; but so far as possible the wood must be placed horizontally, for fire burns faster upward than in any other direction.
Banking, financial, railroad, and insurance congresses were continued on the 23d and following days, the subject of mercantile credits also receiving attention, with P. R. Earling as presiding officer. In his opening address Charles C. Bonney declared that as to the granting of credit the supreme quality to be considered was moral integrity, without which no credit was possible. H. N. Higinbotham stated that credits were too easily obtained, and often as injurious to the receiver as to the giver. Goodman King selected as his topic the mercantile agency system; its origin, usefulness, and suggested improvement; tracing that system from its foundation to its present phenomenal development, a single institution now expending $3,000,000 a year in procuring information for its patrons. On the books of two such institutions were the names of 1,300,000 firms, the changes often amounting to 3,000 a day. So perfect was their organization that the failures among those reported favorably amounted to less than one percent a year.
At the congress of building and loan associations, this being not the least interesting among the group, Mrs. Mary B. Morrell of Little Rock spoke of woman�s place in this relation, claiming that the system was originated by a woman who aided her tenants in laying aside a monthly sum against a time of need. The total investments made by women in building and loan associations amounted to more than the national debt, and women were therefore entitled to a proper representation in the affairs of these institutions. Charles N. Thompson contrasted their benefits to the working classes as compared with savings banks, and in another address was explained their economic value to the entire community.
A few days before the close of the Fair the American Bankers� association held its annual convention,  postponed for the first time since its organization in 1875, on account of the severest financial disturbance that had befallen the country for a score of years. The sessions were held in the Art Institute, with a muster of about 500 delegates representing every section of the United States, though as yet the panic had barely spent its force and the after effects were severely felt throughout the land. Remedies were suggested by many speakers, of whom some were among the foremost of American financiers. As president of the association, William H. Rhawn stated that during this crisis more than 700 banks, with liabilities exceeding $180,000,000, were involved in suspension or failure. James H. Eckels, controller of the currency, spoke at length in favor of a bimetallic currency, on behalf of which he advanced some forcible arguments. Allen R. Foote of Washington pleaded for a sound currency and banking system, for which purpose he urged the appointment of a non-political national commission. George A. Butler of New Haven advocated a practical plan of banking and currency, proposing several amendments to the national banking act. The average reserve in commercial cities; such reserve should be freely used when necessary and promptly restored as soon as the emergency is past. Other measures were suggested by George S. Coe of New York; by William C. Cornwell, who would permit the issue of notes by properly capitalized and inspected banks, and by Thomas R. Patton, who spoke of the danger of making collections by circuitous routes.
At the following session Joseph C. Hendrix, president of the National Union Bank of New York, contrasted the recent panic in Australia with that which had occurred in the United States, remarking that the overwhelming disasters of the former country were largely due to the lack of such financial cooperation as prevailed in the latter. Horace White was in favor of an elastic currency, the prime requisites of which were than no improper limits be placed upon it, and that it be issuable at once as the demand arose. E. O. Leach, a colleague of Hendrix� explained that the financial stringency was by no means due, as was commonly supposed, to an inadequate volume of metallic currency, of which there was more than at any time in the history of the world, the total in November, 1892, amounting to $7,633,000,000, against $3,400,000,000 in 1860. Lyman J. Gage  delivered the closing address, after which officers were elected, N. N. White of Cincinnati being chosen president and J. J. P. Odell of Chicago first vice-president.
In connection with the financial congresses was treated in its financial aspect the question of roads, E. H. Thayer of Iowa stating that the most conservative estimate placed the loss to this country, through bad and insufficient roads, at $250,000,000 a year, approximately divided among the people in proportion to individual expenditure. The remedy, he said in substance, was not a question of increased taxation, but of using to the best advantage the money annually contributed by the people for road purposes. It was within bounds to put the sum spent each year in the maintenance of country roads at $80,000,000, and as a rule it went each year to keep company with the $250,000,000 devoured by mud. Except for thinly settled and mountainous regions, every mile of road used by the public and made a thoroughfare by law could be built of stone or gravel, made durable and permanent, and always in condition for the heaviest wagon loads of produce or merchandise. This could be accomplished within a reasonable time and without additional dollar of taxation; merely through the proper use of the taxes already paid, with the assistance of a little skillful financiering, the borrowing, for instance, of money at low rates of interest, on bonds issued by counties or their subdivisions. Employment would thus be furnished for surplus labor; the money of the people would be kept in circulation, and thrift and prosperity go hand in hand with the prosecution of the work, followed by perpetual benefits to every business interest.
During the term of the Fair Chicago became the centre of musical activity; for here were nearly all the prominent musical associations of the United States, with not a few from foreign lands. At the congresses held the first week in July, and at numerous entertainments given throughout the season, was represented more than a century of musical progress, from the time when Squire Elijah Dunbar led through the intricacies of oratorio chorus the Stoughton Musical society, organized in 1786, their successors still meeting, as did the charter members, for "an annual supper of hot turkey, with nothing stronger than tea or coffee." The Handel and Haydn society of Boston, founded in 1815, sent a portion of its celebrated chorus under the leadership of Carl Zerrahn, while the Chicago orchestra, established in 1891, with Theodore Thomas as conductor, gave expression to the musical taste and talent of the west. At the congresses many branches were illustrated and discussed, from musical literature, art, and criticism, to the management of opera houses, with orchestral art, organ and church music, and choral music and training.
The congresses were opened as usual by C. C. Bonney, E. M. Bowman, president of the American college of musicians, delivering the customary address of welcome, and speaking of the history and aims of the institution. Others spoke in similar vein, suggesting that the college be chartered by congress and thus assume a national character. On the following day the Music Teachers� National association was in session, Bowman as its president. Theodore Presser as its founder, and several others tracing the progress and operations of the society. On the 6th a concert was given, a programme in which were the works of eminent composers being rounded by the contributions of the Thomas orchestra, while on the following day were selections form Glueck�s Orpheus, by Tomlins� chorus of more than 1,000 voices. On the 6th was held a convention of Illinois music teachers, who afterward rendered a symphony of sacred music, followed by a concert representing the works of Illinois composers.
Musical education was freely discussed, George F. Root, a pioneer teacher of music, being chairman of this congress. Many were the remarks as to the power of music as a medium of education and as to its formative influence on character, Jenkin Lloyd Jones speaking in answer to the question, what if music were not in the world; while James R. Murray read a paper on the power and effect of music, in which he took the ground that music neither expressed nor originated anything, but that it called forth the ruling affections. An interesting session was that at which were discussed Indian and folk song in music. The paper read by Alice C. Fletcher of Peabody museum, who for years had been living and studying among the western tribes, was especially instructive, her remarks being practically illustrated by a young Omaha Indian. John C. Fillmore and H. E. Krehbiel expanded on the subject, the latter dwelling on the part which negroes have taken in the folk songs of America. A paper on early phases of American music, by Louis C. Elson of the Boston conservatory, contained several humorous features, his rendition of "Old Hundred," as it was played by the puritans in 1673, causing much merriment. The addresses delivered at this session were interspersed with classical selections rendered by Clara Krause of Berlin and by the Hamburg Buelow orchestra, thus bringing into striking contrast the music of primitive and cultured peoples.
Journalism in relation to music was one of the subjects considered, such points being discussed as the mission of the musical journal and the function of musical criticism in newspapers. Teachers told what they knew of musical instruction in public schools and how to raise the standard of instruction. In the last two days of the congress was considered the condition of musical education in various states and  countries from the standpoint that music should form a source of mental discipline.
During the musical congresses three special days were set apart for women. Mrs. Elizabeth C. Carpenter, as chairman of one of the conference, speaking on the subject of women as musical composers. Luisa Coppiani suggested numerous points as to the phonation and guidance of the voice, severely condemning the explosive method of training and recommending that children be taught to sing by note at an early age. Music as a factor in philanthropy was a topic which related to the experiences of Charlotte Mulligan among the working people of Buffalo. The literary portions of the programme were interspersed with vocal and instrumental renditions. On the second of the women�s days a paper was read by Camilla Urso, who urged the employment of women in orchestras as a remedy for careless instrumentation. Lillian Nordica told by proxy what she knew about women on the lyric stage, and Mrs. Theodore Thomas spoke of the influence of amateur clubs on musical taste.
On the 5th of September was held a Welsh festival of song, in connection with the Eistedfodd congress of music, painting, and literature, the proceedings calling to mind the days when Druid priests and bards chanted their prophecies in the forest depths of ancient Britain. Upon the sward in front of the government building twelve upright stones were erected as altars around a more massive one in the centre, the chief bard proclaiming, as in the days of yore, the Eistedfodd or gathering of bards, and offering a prayer that peace and brotherly love might attend the festival. To this his twelve assistants, representing the months of the year, responded by placing their hands on the sword held aloft by the other. Then from the main altar spoke each bard in turn, and concluding, was robed by the ancient maids of Cambria, the chief in white, the twelve in blue, and all with coronets of oaken leaves. Later there were exercises at Festival hall, the feature of which was the singing of male choirs in competition for prizes. At night a concert was given, at which was rendered for the first time in America the cantata of Prince Llewellyn, a composition dear to the hearts of Welshmen.
At the reception which opened the literary congresses a few eminent writers were greeted by hundreds of their readers, the assemblage adjourning later to Columbus hall, where C. C. Bonney delivered the address of welcome, for the nonce in metrical phrase. Charles Dudley Warner responded, and other speakers were Richard Watson Gilder, Max Richter, Kate Field, and Walter Besant, who touched on the work accomplished by the London society of authors, with its membership of 1,000 men and women, remarking also that the time had come when literary congresses should be held at regular intervals, with a view to fostering wholesome literature and satisfying the 120,000,000 readers of English-speaking race.
Copyright was the subject considered at the first session of the authors� congress, George E. Adams, as chairman, choosing for the theme of his opening address future copyright legislation in the United States. He compared the copyright law with the patent law, with which it had much in common, and expressed the hope that a modus vivendi would be reached satisfactory to the reading public and to the authors and publishers of Great Britain and the United States. Other addresses and papers were by Sir Henry Bergne, George W. Cable, S. S. Sprigge, Watson Gilder, Hamlin Garland, A. C. McClurg, President Adams of the University of Wisconsin, and Professor Loundsbury of Yale, all agreeing that from the law of copyright should be expunged the clauses relating to simultaneous publication.
At the following session, author and publisher and the British society of authors was the theme of a carefully written paper by Walter Besant. The functions of  criticism was the subject of an address by Charles Dudley Warner, who spoke many wholesome truths, though handling somewhat roughly the literature of the United States. An instructive essay on criticism as an educational force was read by Hamilton W. Mable, and other interesting papers were on woman�s mission in Italian literature by Madame Salazar; on modern fiction by George W. Cable; on the relations of literature and journalism by H. D. Traill of London; and on the future of the English drama by Henry A. Jones. In connection with the authors� congress children�s literature was discussed in one of the minor halls, Mrs. Clara D. Bates presiding, with Eugene Field, Hezekiah Butterworth, Mrs. D. Lothrop, and Mrs. Peattie among those who spoke or recited.
In the department of history James B. Angell, as presiding officer, delivered an opening address on the inadequate recognition of diplomatists by historians; Mrs. Ellen H. Walworth explained the value of national archives to a nation�s life and progress; American historical nomenclature was treated by A. S. Spofford, librarian of congress, in a paper read by George E. Adams, and Frederick Bancroft spoke of Seward�s policy toward the south. The present status of pre-Columbian discovery was the theme selected by James Phinney Baxter, Prince Henry the navigator by E. G. Bourne; the economic conditions of Spain in the sixteenth century by Bernard Moses; the union of Utrecht by Lucy M. Salmon; the historical significance of the Missouri compromise by James A. Woodburn; these and other subjects and speakers, too numerous here to be mentioned, adding to the interest of the sessions, two of which were specially held by women.
At the congress of librarian Melvil Dewey, president of the American Library Association, reviewed the progress of libraries since the first convention of librarian was held in New York in 1852. In an interesting treatise F. M. Crunden sketched the ideal library and librarian, and among other themes were state library commissions and national bibliography. In the department of archaeology and philology there were lectures on the social status of women in ancient Egypt; on the romance of archaeology; on Schliemann�s excavations at Troy; on Vedic studies; on Assyrian tablet libraries, and on "Cyprus, the bible, and Homer," the last by Max Richter, who stated that no country was richer than Cyprus in relics illustrative of the old testament. W. C. Winslow also read a paper on old testament history in the light of modern discoveries, and there were others on linguistic and grammatical subjects.
Folk lore was one of the most interesting of the literary congresses, William I. Knapp of the university of Chicago welcoming the delegates to the third annual session of the International Folk Lore society, while F. S. Bassett, chairman of committee, spoke briefly of this branch of literature. "Unspoken," a paper written by Walter Gregor, a Scotch clergyman, explained how Scotch peasants cured toothache and more serious ailments by certain rites and incantations, and how to Scotch lasses were revealed the features of their future husbands, with other curious superstitions. In his "Notes on Cinderella." E. S. Hartland stated that there had been several hundred Cinderellas, not a few of whom were of the male sex. Mrs. Anna R. Watson discoursed on comparative Afro-American folk lore, repeating some of the quaintest of negro legends, and calling attention to the resemblance between them and those of the Finns and American Indians. The cliff-dwellers was the subject selected by Mrs. Palmer Henderson, who claimed that they were of Caucasian and not of Indian race, in some respects well advanced in civilization and in others strangely primitive, even for a people whose homes were probably built before the erection of the pyramids. A lecture on the myths, symbols, and magic of East Africans by Mrs. French-Sheldon was illustrated with  many curiosities collected in the dark continent by this famous explorer, who also displayed the flags which she carried as safeguards through the heart of Africa.
By Vice-president Abercrombie were described the doings of the ancient Finns, their wizards and witches, their gods, their myths, and traditions. Among other papers were those on superstitions of the races of the Northwest by James Deans; on sacred objects of Navajo rietes by Washington Matthews; creole folk songs by George W. Cable; the folk lore of the negro by Mrs. Anna R. Watson; Voodooism by Miss Mary A. Owen, and Japanese folk lore by W. E. Griffiths. The sign language was described by Lieutenant W. E. Scott, four chieftains seated on the platform answering by signs the questions propounded by the lecturer. Bulgarian wedding ceremonies were illustrated by Wulko I. Shopoff, at whose side were natives attired in wedding costumes.
At the education congresses, formally opened on the 17th of July, with Bishop Fallows in charge, their sessions continuing until the close of the month, were represented all branches of education and almost every land with an education system worthy of the name. Teachers have met in convention almost since the time when our public school departments began to take form and shape; but never before has the subject been treated on such broad lines, including all grades and branches, from the kindergarten to the university, and from business colleges to institutions for the defective classes. Just as the educational display was the crowning feature in the department of Liberal Arts, so were the education congresses, together with the musical, literary, religious,a and other conventions with which they were allied, among the most attractive of the World�s Fair parliaments.
After the formal opening in Washington hall, followed by an evening reception, the kindergarten teachers and workers were first in session. W. N. Hailman, who delivered the opening address, selected as his theme the essentials of Froebel�s work, whose influence is still more widely felt than that of any other educational reformer. It was the recollection of his own sufferings as a child that made of Froebel the children�s apostle, one who had ever their cause at heart and was always at their service. From the day when he entered the village school, of which he was considered the biggest dunce, until he concluded his university career with a brief imprisonment for debt, Friedrich Froebel found nothing in school or college to satisfy what he termed "his inner life." It was in his solitary rambles amid the Thuringian forest that his real education was received. Here he communed alone with nature, learning from the plants and trees the lessons that nature teaches, and here it was that he conceived the great idea of his life. Like Comenius, who lived two centuries before, he looked to nature for the true principles of all education. As he who tills the soil creates nothing in the trees and plants, so, he considered, the teacher creates nothing in his pupils, merely aiding the development of inborn faculties, especially through arousing voluntary activity.
The kindergarten congress was largely in the hands of women; for to women this branch of education is almost entirely relegated. But not alone to this department was women�s participation limited, more than a hundred papers being read during the first week�s session of the special congresses by women prominent in the educational circles of Europe and the United States, while at the international congress many of the speakers were of the female sex. Of the general committee Mrs. H. M. Wilmarth was chairman; of the kindergarten committee, Mrs. E. W. Blatchford; of the congress of higher education, Mrs. Harriet C. Brainard, and of that of college fraternities, Miss Ethel Baker. The congress of representative youths, held on the 18th, was intended only for children and those who were to entertain them, Bishop Spaulding, who delivered the principal address, stating that he had many times been asked to speak before the congresses, but had declined all previous invitations, accepting this one because he would rather appear before such an audience than before all the kings and princes  in the world. At the sessions of educators for the blind W. H. Millburn, "the blind chaplain of congress," was the presiding officer, speaking in mellow and resonant voice, with slow deep utterance and in well chosen phrase.
The sessions of the international congresses, attended by delegates from many countries, were held under the auspices of the American National Educational association, of which William T. Harris is president. Numerous were the questions handled simultaneously in the halls of the Art Institute; the programme for the 26th of July, for instance, including university, college, academy, seminary, common school, and kindergarten topics, while on the following day were treated, in addition to some of these, musical, technological, industrial, manual, and business training, with physical education and rational and experimental psychology. John Eaton, formerly United States minister of education, stated that while 100,000,000 pupils were receiving rudimentary instruction in all the countries of the world, more than twice that number had no instruction of any kind. A paper was read by the Russian professor Ergraff Kovalevsky as to what should be added to the usual elementary course to meet the industrial needs of localities or race characteristics. Francis A. Walker, president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, reviewed the progress of technological instruction during the last quarter of a century, stating that there was a great demand for students who had received a technological training, and dwelling on the importance of such training in these days of keen competition.
Martin Kellogg of the University of California spoke in favor of a comity of intercourse among universities, in place of the present rivalry. They should be of one spirit rather than of one type, and each should have a type of its own, aiming at the highest that was attainable on its proper lines of development, and striving after special excellence only in certain portions of the wide field of knowledge. This paper aroused much discussion among those who would have our universities continue to box the educational compass, as now they do, their studies covering or pretending to cover almost the entire realm of science and literature. In the department of secondary instruction the following will serve as specimens of the subjects treated and discussed by some of the foremost educators of the day; Should algebra or geometry; should Latin or some modern language come first in the course of secondary schools? Should the amount of time given to languages; should the amount of time given to mathematics be diminished, in order to make room for a more extended course in physics, botany, and chemistry? While these are proper subjects for discussion, they do not strike at the root of the question, which is rather in the method of teaching than in the subjects taught. Latin, modern languages, mathematics, natural science, these and many other branches may be used to good advantage; but less for the slight knowledge actually acquired than as instruments for training the mental faculties. Here is the main purpose of all true education, and while a judicious selection of themes is of course an important factor, it matters far less what is taught than how it is taught. Above all is needed a simplification of text-books, whose rules and definitions should be few and brief; clear but concise in expression, and stripped of all useless verbiage.
Of the congress of business and commercial colleges the main purpose, as stated by the committee, was to explain the evolution, courses of study, methods of training, management, utility, influence, and defects of such institutions. In connection with them was considered the work of schools of stenography and typewriting, and of associations of business educators.
By Earl Barnes of California was read before the psychological section an interesting paper on children�s theology, containing the results of actual inquiries among thousands of children from six to fifteen years of age. Most of the answers represented God  as a good and great man, with little reference to sterner qualities. Many of the conceptions were vague and shadowy, and some were positively ludicrous. "He can stand on the ground and reach the sky with his hands," said one. "He can look through a key-hole" said another. Heaven was described as a city, a palace, or a park; its location just above the earth, though some placed it in one of the stars, and a few on earth itself. "Whether they go to school there," answered a little girl, "I do not know; but I think they must; for they are so patient and good." Occupation in heaven was a subject that troubled the little ones, not a few of whom spoke of the monotony of celestial life. "I should like to visit heaven," remarked a boy of twelve, "but only for a short time." Angels were described as women, fairies, or birds; but never as men. The devil and his abode were represented in the usual fashion; but these were not often mentioned, and only by children under ten years of age; the orthodox Satan, with his realm of brimstone and fire, being discredited by those in whom the rational faculty was in a measure developed.
Before the project for a Congress Auxiliary began to take definite shape, a meeting was held of some of the most prominent of American engineers with a view to holding special congresses in connection with their profession. It was then determined to form an association of the various engineering organizations in the United States and Canada, and to extend invitations to leading members of the profession in every quarter of the world. Funds were liberally provided, among other purposes for the entertainment of visitors, and soon it became apparent that here would be one of the principal features of the Auxiliary. It was at first intended to make of these congresses a subdivision of some department of science; but at a meeting of delegates held in May, 1891, it was resolved �that the importance of engineering entitles it to the place of an independent department in the World�s Congresses." The resolution was approved by the authorities; circulars were issued, and a programme prepared including the divisions of civil, mechanical, mining, metallurgical, military, and marine engineering, with engineering considered as a branch of education and as a profession. On these subjects were read some 220 papers in all, many of them being followed by discussions.
At the opening session in Washington hall, Charles C. Bonney and Octave Chanute, the latter as chairman of the meeting and president of the general committee, discoursed on the dignity and utility of the profession. Sir Benjamin Baker, as vice-president of the British institution of civil engineers; Baron de Rochemont for France; Alfred Nyberg for Russia; C. O. Gleim for Germany; Hugo Koestler for Austria, and Celso Capacci for Italy, all spoke of the interest manifested in these congresses, as a part of the great series planned for the interchange of thought among the foremost thinkers of the world.
As with other departments, the sessions of the various divisions were held in separate halls; but of the many topics considered only a brief synopsis can here be given. At the mechanical congresses, with Eckley B. Coxe as president, was recommended the adoption of an international system of testing materials, and this was followed by a discussion of the various methods of testing locomotives, while at other times were debated their limitations as to speed. Among other subjects treated were oil-line pumping engines, evaporative surface condensers, water meters, calorimeters, and ammonia motors.
In the division of civil engineering, of which William Metcalf was presiding officer, the navigation system of France was explained by F. Guillain, inspector-general of roadways and bridges; F. A. Pimental, a civil engineer of Portugal spoke of the road, river, and railway communications in his country, and a counsellor on buildings to the Prussian government illustrated the plan of the railway terminal at Altona, whereby through a system of over and under grade structures, all surface crossings were avoided. At another session E. A. Kempus and C. A. Huet discussed the improvement of the North sea canal in Holland, the Lower Weser and its improvements being described by German experts. As an instance of the cosmopolitan character of these gatherings it may be stated that on one occasion papers were read in person or by proxy from citizens of New York and Chicago, of Germany, France, Great Britain, Portugal, Mexico, Chile, and New South Wales, the topics varying from railroads to the uses of Portland cement.
At the joint sessions of mining and metallurgical engineers, of which Henry M. Howe was president, a Washington statistician, in an exhaustive paper on the geological distribution of metals, showed that between 1792 and 1890 the United States has produced nearly one third of the world�s supply of gold and more than one fifth of its silver, the proportion having largely increased within the last score of years. The lead region of southwestern Wisconsin, the lead and zinc deposits of the Mississippi valley, and the Bertha zinc mine of Virginia were also among the subjects discussed. G. Chesneau of Paris spoke of the ventilation and safety of mines, and the detection and measurement of fire damp. The leading part which electricity was destined to play in mining was food for much speculation based on the inventions of recent years. Improvements in the handling and reduction of ores were considered, and an entire session was occupied in discussing the different methods of manufacturing steel. Richard Akerman described the Bessemer process as conducted in Sweden, and H. H. Campbell  considered the open-hearth process in a paper which was both practical and scholarly.
In the departments of military and naval engineering, with Clifton Comly and George W. Melville as presidents, the entire subject of coast defense was reviewed, and especially were considered the merits and demerits of the systems adopted by the United States and Great Britain. Colonel H. L. Abbott of the United States army was of the opinion that on account of the facility with which troops could be concentrated by rail upon any given point, there was little danger of invasion. Our greatest need was to prepare against naval attacks, and to that end it was necessary to protect our cities form distant bombardment from the ocean; to bar the passage of fleets through the narrow channels leading to strategic points, and to close wider entrances leading to important land-locked bays or sounds. Major G. S. Clarke discussed the mater from the British point of view, stating that since the United States navy could not obtain control of distant seas, except in alliance with some European power, it should be held available for home defense. The natural policy would be to trust to the navy for the protection of the coasts and to provide defenses only for the rendezvous and depots of its fleets.
At one of the sessions were discussed the modern infantry rifle and the wounds which it inflicted, comparisons being made between recent and old-fashioned weapons. Captain Blunt of the ordnance department traced the gradual decrease in the weight of the bullet, the size of the charge, and the diameter of the calibre, arguing that the magazine gun gives to the soldier a reserved power while in action, and thus increases his confidence. The new projectile, as discharged from the modern rifle with a velocity of 2,000 feet a second, would penetrate the earth to a depth of 25 inches; would pass through wood 30 inches, and would kill or wound four men standing in file. Surgeon La Garde illustrated his remarks with anatomical specimens, showing that the old style of leaden bullet shattered all portions of the bone, while the modern steel missile penetrated without fracturing. Hence the use of the new rifle and bullet was not only more effective but more humane.
 - The sessions on engineering as a branch of education, with I. O. Baker as chairman, were attended by students and professors from prominent institutions in Europe and the United States. John Goodman of the Yorkshire college, England, Charles D. Jameson of the University of Iowa, and others spoke on the subject of laboratories and the researches conducted by students. Field equipment and practice, methods of training, and similar topics were also treated in this connection.
In addition to the session already mentioned, a conference was held on the subject of aerial navigation, O. Chanute, Doctor Thurston, and Colonel King presiding at the several meetings. Papers were read and the views of distinguished scientists considered, general principles being mainly discussed and special devices of no practical value excluded from consideration. It was shown that aerial navigation could now be classed among the science, and that such was the progress with recent years that most of the problems connected therewith would appear to be on the point of solution. Since the last international conference, held in Paris in 1889, a measurable success has been achieved in driving balloons at the rate of 25 miles an hour; but as such cost and with loads so light as to limit their use to war purposes. It was believed, however, that a speed of 60 to 80 miles would eventually be attained with flying machines propelled, like birds, by self-developed energy.
Still another congress was that which was held for suggesting improvements in the great waterways of the world. A prominent engineer explained the project for the Nicaragua canal, describing the route from ocean to ocean as indicated in the relief map in the Transportation building. The principal topic, however, was the proposed ship canal between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River, connecting the commerce of the Gulf of Mexico with that of the great lakes and internal waterways. The route by way of the head of Lake Superior was considered by the secretary of the Duluth board of trade, and that by way of Chicago and the Illinois river by L. E. Cooley, a Chicago engineer. Perhaps the most forcible presentation of the matter was by an Iowa delegate who said in part: "The building of this waterway means higher prices for grain and produce to the farmer by making freight cheaper. This canal will carry wheat from the Mississippi River to Chicago for two cents per bushel, saving four cents per bushel. Suppose it carries 400,000,000 bushels of grain, or one third of the crop of 1,200,000,000 bushels produced in the six states of Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Kansas, and Nebraska, the farmers will be benefitted by this route to the extent of $16,000,000 on this item alone, and on the 800,000 tons of anthracite coal used in this valley will at least be saved $2 per ton on the through route from Buffalo, which would amount to $1,600,000 more."
At the closing session all the members of the various divisions met together, and the chairman of each reported briefly the proceedings in his section. Earnest and telling farewell speeches were delivered by many of the leading foreign delegates, and when the meeting separated, it was felt that at these congresses the work accomplished tended to the advancement of all branches of engineering science.
At the opening session of the congresses of art and architecture, with Charles L. Hutchinson as chairman of the former, Walter C. Larned delivered an address on the relation of literature to art, and among other papers were those on American painting and sculpture by W. M. R.  French, and on Polish art by Michel de Zmigrodski. The congress of photography held several sessions, as also did the congress of ceramic art, women being largely represented in the sessions of the latter and reading essays in each of the several departments.
The congress of architecture dealt largely with the architectural, landscape, and other constructive features of the Fair, among the speakers being D. H. Burnham, F. L. Olmsted, E. C. Shankland, W. H. Holcomb, C. F. Foster, and R. H. Pierce but of these matters sufficient mention has already been made. An interesting paper by Henry Van Brunt, the artificer of the Electricity building, touched on the growth of characteristic architectural style in the United States. Frederick Baumann chose for his theme "Chicago; a sketch of its rise and development," describing some of the old-time buildings and tracing the development of architectural science since, in 1846, John Van Osdel, the pioneer of his profession, first devoted himself to the making of plans and specifications. The elevators of Chicago were marvels of constructive skill, and as for the raising of buildings and blocks, it would seem that the men of Chicago could raise any structures on earth, unless it might be for the pyramids of Egypt. Other themes discussed were the use of color in architecture by H. L. Warren of Boston; government architecture by Jeremiah O�Rourke, and public competition by J. Gaudet, while as president of the American institute of architects, which held here its annual convention, E. H. Kendall delivered the usual address.
In the congresses at which were discussed the various branches of government, many subjects were treated of vital importance to this over-governed country, where what is needed above all else is to undo the mischievous legislation which impairs the prosperity of state and nation, of community and individual. As proposed by the committee the topics to be considered included law reform, international law, the administration of justice, political and economic reform, the government of cities, executive administration, the protection of property in literature, and arbitration and peace.
At the sessions devoted to law reform and jurisprudence were discussed the development of constitutional law in the United States; claims against governments; the administration of civil justice in Russia and in Japan; the criminal law of Italy; legal education, and admission to the bar. Judge Gary chose for his theme the value of precedents, and Judge Hudson asked and in part answered the question, how could the administration of justice be improved; other speakers on this topic being judges Wakefield, Vance, and Hawkins. Simeon E. Baldwin spoke of the duty of the state in suits attacking charitable bequests, and J. B. Haskell of the conflict of state and federal court decisions. These, however, are but specimens of the numerous subjects presented for consideration.
The suffrage was fully treated, and especially the question of woman�s suffrage, the speakers on the latter subject including, in addition to such prominent advocates as Susan B. Anthony, Isabella B. Hooker, and Laura de Force Gordon, women from many foreign lands, from Iceland to South Australia. Proportional representation was freely discussed and recommended; some of the speakers urging that each political element should be represented in the ratio of numbers. Municipal government was a favorite topic, and at the congresses held thereon some forcible views and statements were presented. David Dudley Field recommended a reduction in the number of municipal officers to be elected by popular suffrage; so that voters would not need to consider the claims of a host of candidates, as to whose fitness or unfitness they could not possibly be informed. Seth Low declared the most deep-seated cause of municipal evils and troubles to be the disposition to use a city for political purposes without consideration for the city itself. Men became partisans before they were citizens, and to secure office, city officials must first be partisans. Charles S. Ashley called attention to the general condition of cities and towns - bad paving, defective sewerage, dirty streets and alleys, inferior gas, mismanagement of schools, and extravagance in all departments. As a remedy he suggested the appointment of committees of property owners to cooperate with officials or agents in making public improvements. Among other speakers were John H. Gray and W. J. Onahan, whose remarks dealt mainly with the municipal affairs of Chicago.
Present at the international congress of arbitration and peace were prominent advocates of the cause from many cities and nations. From Washington came Josiah Quincy, assistant secretary of state; from Boston, Hezekiah Butterworth, and Robert T. Paine; from Philadelphia, Alfred H. Love; from London, W. Evans Darby; from Germany, Adolph Richter; from Italy, V. Zeggio and Hector Pratuzi; while Denmark, Turkey, Africa, and other lands had also their representatives. As president of the congress, Josiah Quincy read an exhaustive paper on the financial aspect of the question, and on the benefits of arbitration in the settlement of international disputes. In the United States there was one soldier to every 2,640 citizens; while in France the proportion was one in 68, and in Germany one in 90. Within the last quarter of a century the United States had several times adjusted by arbitration the difference between other powers; within the last century  this country had in more than thirty instances arranged for the settlement of her own disputes with foreign powers through some form of arbitration. To these must be added the settlement of the Bering Sea controversy, the most conspicuous example of all, and one that had greatly strengthened the cause by attracting public attention, by the novelty and importance of the questions involved, and by the tone and character of the proceedings.
Alfred H. Love declared that there could be no enduring peace while nations continued to put their trust in weapons; preaching peace in their churches while organizing armies and navies, and spending their substance on fortifications and battleships. The appropriations made for such purposes should be used for hospitals and merchant-men; should form an international relief fund for the aid of mankind, irrespective of nationality, wherever there be loss, distress, and suffering. Thus would be formed the grandest pension fund that the world had ever known. In these remarks is indicated the drift of thought in a general discussion on the fraternal union of peoples. By George D. Boardman was read a paper on the proper relation of nationality to internationalism, and by Hodgson Pratt was prepared one on international animosities and how they may be removed. John W. Hoyt delivered a vigorous address; Henry S. Clubb spoke on prophecies of peace and war, and Philip S. Moxom on the moral and social aspects of warfare, which he denounced as murder, robbery, and arson on a gigantic scale.
Next in the series of congresses were such as could not properly be classed in any of the principal departments, or for special reasons could not be held at the appointed time and place. Among them were the dental, pharmaceutical, and horticultural congresses, and that which dealt with the African people and continent. The sessions of the last named were of unusual interest, its deliberations including scientific, literary, social, industrial, and commercial questions, discussed by many speakers and in many phases. The Belgian minister delivered the opening address, showing how in the young state of Congo liberty and civilization had supplanted slavery and barbarism; how traffic in arms and rum had been suppressed, and how Arab slave-dealers were held aloof by a chain of defensive outposts. One of the best speeches was from Prince Massaquoi, a native of Africa and a graduate of an American college. From Eli Sowerbutt, a member of the Manchester Geographical society, was read a paper on Africa as a whole, with colored maps displaying the inhabited  portions and the several conditions prevailing therein. Frederick S. Arnot explained what the Africans themselves have done to develop Africa, and C. C. Adams spoke of that country as a new factor in civilization, touching on its resources, climatic conditions, and railroad development. Others dealt with the African negro as a manufacturer, tradesman, craftsman, and his Americanized brother as a mechanic, artist, musician, journalist, and professional man, still others telling what the American negro owed to his kindred beyond the sea. Should the Afro-American colonize Africa, was among the topics considered, one of the speakers suggesting the formation of a chartered company, like that under which Virginia was colonized; but to this the sentiment of the congress was strongly opposed; for, as was stated, civilized negroes of the better class were needed where they were, to counteract the effect of poverty and illiteracy among others of their race.
The action of European powers in relation to the slave trade was freely discussed, and especially the effect of the Brussels treaty of 1891, reports being received from the British anti-slavery society, embodying the most recent and reliable information touching on many of the subjects under consideration by the congress. One of the first addresses delivered was on the condition of the negro from 1493 to 1893, and by others were treated from historical, philosophical, and ethnological points of view, the African civilizations of the past and present, with special regard to that of Egypt. In addition to the slave trade were also considered the efforts to suppress it, and the means for affording the colored races opportunities for self-improvement and self-advancement. In this connection one of the most telling speeches was delivered by Bishop Arnett, before a large and deeply interested audience assembled in Columbus hall.
In the department of science and philosophy were included nearly all the branches that could properly be classed under those divisions, the sessions lasting throughout the week beginning with the 21st of August, though for reasons that need not be stated, some were held earlier or later during the season of the Fair. At the formal opening, among those who accompanied president Bonney to the platform was Baron von Helmholtz, whose appearance was greeted with an outburst of applause such as never before was heard within the walls of the Chicago Art Institute. There were the usual addresses from the chairmen of the several congresses, among them one from Elisha Gray, who presided over the electrical congress, and for many years has been striving to bring about an international agreement as to electrical unit and standards of measurements. To this end eminent men were appointed as delegates by the governments of Europe and the United States, to continue the work already accomplished, the Austrian delegation being headed by Nikola Tesla, who as an electrician ranks second only to Edison, while Canada, Mexico, and China were also represented. Thus the decisions reached and embodied in the report adopted at the close of the congress were in the nature of a recommendation to the participating powers, and in the light of present knowledge may almost be considered as final.
First among the papers read may be mentioned that of Nikola Tesla, who selected as his theme mechanical and electrical oscillators, handling the subject with his usual skill and illustrating it by a number of startling experiments. W. H. Preece, an English inventor and author of note, considered the problem of electrical communication through space. After referring to Edison�s experiments, showing that telegraphic communication could be transmitted to or from a moving train, he stated the results of his own researches as to the laws and conditions that determine the limits of distance between transmitting and receiving agencies. Silvanus P. Thompson, one of the most popular writers on this branch of science, suggested the means for establishing ocean telephony, claiming that long-distance telephoning, to the point of freely conversing across the Atlantic, was but a question of time. By George Forbes was explained the work now in progress for utilizing the Niagra falls in the generation and transmission of electricity, the aim being to supply power for factories within a radius of 200 or 300 miles, and perhaps for propelling boats on the Erie and other canals.
Before the congress of chemists many interesting papers were read; among them that of John W. Langley on the works and aims of the committee on international standards as to the composition of steel. H. D. Richmond spoke of the analysis of diary products; Ernest Millau of the best methods of oil analysis, and at other sessions agricultural chemistry was thoroughly discussed, especially in relation to soils and the analysis of fertilizers.  Not a few of the speakers were from Europe and Australasia, a Russian professor from the Polytechnic school of Riga presiding at one of the sessions. In connection with the chemical division was held the congress of pharmacists, at which the education and examination of students in schools of pharmacy were the principal subjects of discussion. At a special session held by women, the chairman, Mrs. Ida Hall Robey, stated that there were more than 700 registered pharmacists of the female sex in the United States. In the geological division women also met in separate convention, among the subjects treated being the granites of New England and the fossils of the upper Silurian group. By James Geike, of the Scotch geological survey, a valuable paper was prepared on the glacial succession of the British isles and northern Europe. Glacial succession in Sweden, in Switzerland, and in the United States were also treated by eminent geologists, and other questions considered were pleistocene climatic changes and the correlation of glacial formations in opposite hemispheres.
Meteorological topics were discussed by delegates from many states, and especially by the chiefs of weather bureaus, the principal subjects considered being the proper location, elevation, and shelter of instruments. In an interesting paper Frank H. Bigelow discoursed on the possibility of long distance forecasts, stating that after a thorough investigation he had obtained results which clearly indicated that the magnetic influence of the sun upon the earth is attended with well defined effects on its atmosphere. John Eliot of Calcutta took for his subject the prediction of dry and rainy seasons, and Father Faura, director of the observatory at Manila, the signs which precede typhoons in the Philippine islands.
In the astronomical department Alvan G. Clark, by whom were fashioned the lenses for the Lick and Yerkes equatorials, spoke of the future mechanism of telescopes, claiming that the limit of size and power was yet far from being attained. T. J. J. See touched on the investigation of double-star orbits. In a darkened room George E. Hale described and illustrated with stereopticon views the process of taking photographs of the sun, and by J. Keeler were traced the wave lengths of the principal lines in the spectrum of the nebulae.
At another session Egon von Oppelzer read a paper on contributions to solar physics, and W. H. Pickering attacked the theory that the moon was a dead planet, asserting that there were evidences of the existence of water and atmosphere. In this connection may also be mentioned the mathematical section for the discussion of mathematics in relation to astronomy.
At the philosophical congress, held in connection with those which dealt with physics, R. N. Foster chairman of committee, remarked that philosophy, as compared with the solid work of science, was like a comet sailing among the stars, very large of head and seemingly dangerous, but after all nothing more than vapor. Nevertheless philosophy was the mother of all the sciences, taking up their many threads and presenting them in their essential unity. Moreover it pervaded the entire domain of education; and education, not money, was what made the man. A paper on the Hegalian system of dealing with criminals called forth much discussion, one of the speakers touching on the methods advocated by Herbert Spencer and Leslie Stephenson, who were in favor of reformatory rather than vindictive punishment. Among other subjects considered were the ethical aspects of pessimism; the twofold nature of knowledge, imitative and reflective; the philosophy of education, and synthetic education, Josiah Royce of Harvard University reading the final paper on Kant and causation, prepared by W. T. Harris of Washington.
In the congress of psychology were treated mesmerism, hypnotism, clairvoyance, and kindred topics, Elliott Coues, as chairman, reviewing in his inaugural address the entire field of psychological science, past, present, and future. "While not as yet what may be termed an orthodox science," he said, "the facts on which it is based have always existed, and this is the first time that is has received official recognition from government." Many who have long been students of the strange phenomena connected therewith read papers tending to correct crude ideas commonly entertained on the subject. A few days later were held the congresses on anthropology, ethnology, and zoology, W. F. Putnam, as chief of the Anthropological department of the Fair, taking a prominent part in the proceedings.
Labor was the next subject for consideration; nor the labor question as it is commonly understood, but labor in its highest and broadest sense, as discussed, though with much diversity of view, by its sincerest friends and champions in the United States and in many foreign lands. From England especially came many leaders of the cause, and among those who cooperated with the committee, personally or as corresponding members, were William E. Gladstone, Sir John Gorst, home secretary for India, Richard T. Ely, and Carroll D. Wright.  Cardinal Manning accepted an honorary membership, and said Cardinal Gibbons: "I regard the consequences as the most important feature of the Exposition, and the labor congress as the most important of the congresses."
In his opening address C. C. Bonney spoke of the problems which the labor movement presented. Others followed in similar vein, among them Bishop Fallows, who touched on the attitude of the church as a friend to the laboring man. By Herbert Barrows was presented a message of greeting and sympathy from the workingmen of England, supplemented by a few remarks of his own. Kate Field was in favor of a department of labor in the cabinet, and of a practical labor bureau, with affiliated societies in every section of the United States. In a paper prepared by Lady Dilke was told a pitiful story of the hardships of British workingmen, of those who toiled in the foul atmosphere of sweat-shops and factories for less than would furnish the scantiest of daily bread; makers of match-boxes, for instance, receiving but seven shillings for 84 hours of labor. Among the speakers at the opening session were John H. Gray of the Northwestern University; William Clarke, secretary of the British advisory council; Doctor Zacher of Berlin, and Victor Delahaye of the superior council of labor of France.
At another session Samuel Gompers, in answer to the self-proposed question, "What does labor want?" said that it wanted the earth and the fullness thereof; and first of all an immediate advance in wages and reduction in time - eight hours a day, with fewer tomorrow and fewer still the next day. But while there was other nonsense of this kind, the discussions of the labor parliament were for the most part of a rational and instructive character, as at times were even the remarks of Samuel Gompers. Edwin McGlynn discoursed on the destiny of the labor movement, advocating the single tax doctrine as one that would improve the laborer�s condition. On the latter question spoke also Henry George, who explained the meaning of the phrase and how the idea was suggested to him by the so-called land boom in California, which carried the price of what before were almost worthless tracts to $1,000 an acre. General Weaver, Mary E. Lease, and others stated their views in this connection, and a single tax platform was adopted, the final clause in which, recommending public control of common ways, as for transportation and the furnishing of gas and water, was amended on the motion of Hamlin Garland.
From Edward Everett Hale was read an essay on the results of cooperation and the sharing of profits as exemplified by the Nelson Manufacturing company of St. Louis, and by N. O. Nelson, vice-president of that company, were further explained its workings. The latter was one of the best papers read, full of sound, common-sense, practical suggestions, and without trace of communism, anarchy, or socialistic drivel. Said Nicholas P. Gilman, who followed, "To give a workman equal opportunity with his employer is the philosophy of the whole labor question, and an example like this is worth all the rhetoric in the world." The education of the workman and especially his industrial training, was considered, as also was the question of weights, measures, and coinage, one of the speakers advocating international mints and an international system of weights and measures. At a separate session of women Lucy Salmon of Vassar college discoursed on economic questions in domestic service, and Mrs. Helen Campbell on the industrial condition of women and children. A sensible paper was the one read by Catherine Coman of Wellesley college, showing that not only were women�s wages steadily advancing, but during the present century the occupations open to women had increased a hundred fold.
The labor congresses closed on labor day, the 4th of September, on the Sabbath preceding which, clergymen representing several denominations met in Washington hall before an audience of 2,500 persons, assembled to hear from the churches their messages of hope and cheer. After a brief address from Henry D. Lloyd, who acted as chairman, Archbishop Ireland spoke on the Catholic church and the labor question, touching at length on the encyclical relating to the condition of labor from Leo XIII. Speaking for the protestant denominations, John P. Coyle stated that the church owed a duty to labor, and if that duty were done the labor problem would not exist. Representing the Hebrew faith, Emil G. Hirsch remarked that there was no Jewish pulpit but felt the thrill of the prophet�s words, that he who planted the vine should eat of the fruits thereof. The age to preach the resignation of the weak was past. The law was often made a fetich, and charity a makeshift. Had we more justice, we should not need charity. In a paper written by George E. M. McNeill was recommended an increased tax on land to give work to the unemployed, and Herbert Burrows outlined the attitude of socialism toward labor and the church.
Of all the sessions held in the Art Institute none attracted more attention than those of the so-called parliament of religions, preceded by the catholic congress and followed by denominational and missionary congresses, with those of the evangelical alliance and other associations and brotherhoods. Here were represented all christian sects and creeds, the Hebrews also participating, while from Hindostan and China came men who explained how much there was in common between the doctrines of Christianity and those of Brahminism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Points of agreement and divergence in belief were discussed, with the achievements of churches and missions in the common cause of humanity, these gatherings receiving the endorsement of the religious leaders of the world, not a few of whom were present in person.
On the morning of the 4th of September the hall of Columbus was crowded as never before it had been; for this was the day appointed for the opening of the catholic congress. The hall was tastefully decorated, a fringe of plants encircling the carpeted platform, with a large bouquet of roses on the desk, and in the background festoons of white and yellow bunting. On the right was a bust of Cardinal Manning; on the left one of Cardinal Newman, and smiling as in benediction on the audience, the portrait of Leo XIII, beneath it those of Washington and Columbus, below which was the papal banner. At the head of the procession was escorted to the platform a gray-haired man, benign of aspect and attired in robes of scarlet. It was Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore, to whom was accorded the place of honor. Next to him were archbishops Feehan, Ryan, Ireland, Hennessey, Jannsens, and other dignitaries of the church, with a number of priests and laymen. By Archbishop Ireland were briefly outlined the purposes of the congress; Cardinal Gibbons urged that all discussions be conducted in a spirit of mutual forbearance, and Archbishop Redwood of New Zealand said that he had travelled 9,000 miles to go to school again at the greatest school on earth - the congresses of the Auxiliary. By William J. Onahan, secretary of the committee on organization, was read a letter of greeting and approval from the pope and by Father Nugent a similar epistle from Archbishop Vaughan, successor to Cardinal Manning. Monseigneur Satolli delivered an eloquent address in Latin, and after further speeches the first regular session was convened.
To relate in detail the proceedings of the catholic or other religious congresses is foreign to the purpose of my work, not only on account of their length, but because in these pages is no place for theologic or polemical discussion. Moreover, to the members of each denomination its tenets are already known, and here to repeat  them would be tiresome iteration. Suffice it to mention in briefest outline the more salient features, not omitting the views expressed by those to whose creeds the Christian world is a stranger.
Passing then to the parliament of religions, it may first of all be stated that while doubtless the only one at which all the great historic faiths were represented, there is nothing new in its plan; for the project for a congress of representatives of religious faiths is older than Christianity itself. Says John H. Barrows, chairman of the committee, "H. Dharmapala of Calcutta, who was to speak for the Buddhist church of Ceylon, thus wrote as to the religious parliament: "Two thousand years ago, just such a congress was held in India by the great Buddhist emperor, Asoka, at the modern city of Patua, and the noblest lessons of tolerance therein enunciated were embodied in lithic records and implanted in the four corners of his empire. Here is one extract: King Plyadasi honors all forms of religious faith, and enjoins not only reverence be shown in such manner as is suited to the difference in belief.�"
The idea of a congress of religions, or what has been termed a sympathy of religions, has been many a time suggested both in poetry and prose, from the days of Cominius to those of Tennyson, who quotes the following inscription for a temple in Kashmir: "O God, in every temple I see people that see thee, and in every language I hear spoken, people praise thee." And thus in his Akbar�s Dream, one of the most recent of his poems.
That stone by stone I reared a sacred fane,
A temple, neither pagod, mosque, nor church,
But loftier, simpler, always open-doored
To every breath from heaven; and Truth and Peace
And Love and Justice came and dwelt therein.
By some of the foremost thinkers of the world, both among clergy and laity, the project was strongly commended, and if here and there it was condemned, this was only among the prejudiced and narrow-minded. "Religion cannot be exhibited," wrote and English clergyman. "But surely," as Doctor Barrows remarks, "its great part in human history can be impressively told; its achievements can be narrated; its vast influence over art, ethics, education, liberty can be set forth; its present condition can be indicated; its missionary activities can be described, and best of all the spirit of mutual love, of cosmopolitan fraternity can be disclosed and augmented." By the various denominations, about thirty in number, were expounded what they deemed to be the special truths committed to them, the practical results accomplished, and especially such as shed lustre on their annals.
It was an impressive spectacle that marked the opening of the parliaments in Columbus hall, on the 11th of September, and never before perhaps was seen at one time and place such diversity of feature and costume. Men from almost every state and European nation were here; here were Hindoos in their gaudy robes; Japanese in their picturesque garb, and Chinamen in mandarins� attire. When the procession approached the platform, headed by C. C. Bonney and Cardinal Gibbons, there was neither vacant seat nor standing room on floor or gallery. Then came a long array of bishops and archbishops, of priests and princes, of men and women of every race and color, such as Addison might have dreamed of in his vision of Mirza. After prayer and hymn, President Bonney briefly outlined the programme, and was followed by Doctor Barrows with an address of welcome. Then spoke Archbishop Feehan, Cardinal Gibbons, Augusta Chapin, Harlow N. Higinbotham, Alexander McKenzie, Archbishop Dionysios Latas, head of the Greek church, P. C. Mozoomdar on behalf of the Brahminists, and Pung Kuang Yu for the followers of Confucius.
Among the speakers at other sessions were Lyman Abbott, whose subject was "religion essentially characteristic of humanity;" E. L. Rexford, whose theme was "the religious intent;" Edward Everett Hale, who was received with much enthusiasm, and Joseph Cook, who declared that he had no sympathy with the milk and water, lavender styles of modern religion. Rabbi Mendes spoke in relation to the Hebrew faith; H. Toki explained the tenets of Buddhism; Kinza Riuge M. Hirai those of the Japanese,  and Shibata Reuchi those of the Jikko sect of the ancient Shinto faith. Shibata, attired in robes of white and yellow silk, created somewhat of a sensation by kissing on the cheek several motherly dames who wished to shake hands with and congratulate him, but this was merely the Jikko method of salutation as was so accepted.
By Archbishop Kane was read a paper from Cardinal Gibbons on the needs of humanity supplied by the catholic religion. Mrs. Eliza Sunderland spoke of comparative religions, and from T. B. Thiele of Leyden University came a treatise on comparative theology. Thomas W. Higginson, in an essay on the sympathy of the religions, stated that the first religious parliament in the United States was simultaneous with the nation�s birth; George Washburn, president of a college at Constantinople, presented an exhaustive treatise on the points of contact and contrast between Christianity and Mohammedanism, and Mrs. Ormiston-Chant spoke in favor of a new religion. From Kung Ho of Shanghai was read his prize essay on Confucianism, and from Monseigneur D�Harlez of Louvain University, a paper on the comparative studies of the world�s religions. Royalty was also represented at the parliament, Prince Wolkonsky of Russia discoursing on the social aspects of religion, and Prince Chudhadharn on Buddhism as it exists in Siam. From Lady Henry Somerset came a gracious message, and from such eminent men as Max Muller and Thomas Dwight, papers filled with the ripest fruits of scholarships. A Hindoo monk complained of the patronizing fashion in which he and his fellow orientals had been treated by some of the speakers. "We have been told to accept Christianity," he said, "because Christian nations are prosperous. We look at England, the richest Christian nation of the world. Why is she rich and prosperous? Because she has her foot upon the neck of 250,000,000 Asiatics. We read history and we see everywhere that Christianity has conquered prosperity by cutting the throats of its followers. At such a price the Hindoo will have none of it."
The science of religions was also discussed, and especially that of theosophy, among the speakers being Anne Besant, who discoursed on Karmic law; G. W. Chakravati, who showed what theosophy was; H. Dharmapala, who pronounced it the basis of all religions; Henrietta Muller, who stated that it was revealed the essential humanity of the deity and the ultimate divinity of man; William Q. Judge and Mrs. Cooper-Oakley, who explained the theosophic ideas of brotherhood and of death. At the congress of Christian scientists the first paper was read by E. J. Foster-Eddy, its president. In an address on scientific theology, John F. Linscott declared that Christianity as a Christian Science was not a religious system but a universal religion, with a universal principle, and capable of universal practice. Other addresses were on the resurrection, on spirit and matter, on God incorporeal, mortals and immortals, prophetic scriptures, healing the sick, the scientific universe and the brotherhood of man.
Thus the parliament of religions was continued until near the close of the month, some of the speakers mentioned and many others delivering addresses at several sessions. With them and after them were held the meetings of the several religious denominations, whose proceedings cannot here be described in detail It may be stated in general terms that at the parliament and congresses were discussed the theistic teachings of the great historic faiths, the nature and life of man, his place in the universe, his spirituality, immortality, and his relations and duties to God. Religion was considered apart from morality, as were the various systems of religion, past and present, their defects, and what they have done for mankind, together with religion in the family, in relation to the marriage bond, to home and education, to society and social problems, to science, art, and letters. The fraternity of peoples, the condition and reunion of Christendom and of the whole human family, with the characteristics of the coming faith which should united mankind in bonds of religious unity, were also among the subjects treated, the parliament closing with expressions of peace and good will in which all the participating sects and nations were represented.
At the mission congresses the speeches covered a large variety of topics, among those which attracted most attention being the address of Frank M. Bristol, who took for his subject the unevangelized in Christian lands, attacking the churches in vigorous style for expending their yearly millions in sending missionaries to foreign lands, while near almost every church in Christendom were as dark spots as existed anywhere on earth. Other addresses were on problems and methods, Sunday schools as cooperative agencies, bible societies, tract and book societies, denominational comity and cooperation, and a wide range of subjects touching on missions, and their work, George Smith of Edinburgh, in his "geographical survey, especially the totally unreached fields," outlining the condition of foreign lands, and presenting statistics as to the great mission fields of the east. Women held separate conference under the auspices of the International society of woman�s missions, and later, joint session with the mission congresses.
 - At the congress on Sunday rest, which followed, Rabbi Felsenthal made some sensible remarks in connection with the Sabbath in Judaism, denouncing all legislation which would enjoin on unwilling minorities one certain day for keeping the Sabbath and one certain manner of keeping it. Delegates from several foreign lands were present, and the papers read were numerous, ranging from Sunday closing at the Fair to Sunday rest from the work of railroad transportation.
During the first week of October was held a congress on patents, trademarks, and inventions, these being classed under the division of intellectual property and thus belonging to the department of government. Many were the papers read by men and women of whom not a few were specially qualified to deal with the subjects under debate. Of unusual interest was the address of Judge Henry W. Blodgett, whose recollections dated back to 1831, when among the problems of the day was how to gather and garner the harvest of the prairies. First was invented a plough that would "scour," and then a more serviceable kind of harrow. The cradle supplanted the sickle and the harvester followed, as did the thrashing machine and the fanning mill. Next came the combination machine which cleaned the grain and placed it in bags, these and other inventions attracting westward an intelligent class of settlers, to whom the use of superior farming implements afforded time and means for self-improvement and self-advancement.
R. J. Gatling, inventor of the gun which bears his name, welcomed the delegates on behalf of the American association of inventors, of which he was president. The greatest monument that the country possessed he pronounced to be the patent office, from which the first year three patents were issued, and in the year 1892 more than 36,000. To Americans were granted twice as many patents as to all the remainder of the world, and some of them were of incalculable benefit. By Mrs. Charles Henrotin was read a paper prepared by Helen Blackburn of London on the inventions of women. The first patent issued to a woman was in 1637, for preparing tinctures, as of saffron and roses, and the second in the following year, for an implement for cutting wood into thin pieces, to be made into band-boxes and sword sheaths. Thenceforth until the end of the eighteenth century the names of only 15 women were found in the records of the British office, with about 40 for the first half of the nineteenth, and nearly 1,800 between 1852 and 1884, since which latter date there has been a steady increase, year by year, in keeping with the growth of education, wealth, and luxury.
John W. Noble, ex-secretary of the interior, spoke of the interdependence of patents and their relation to the government. Largely through the inventions of the era of civil strife the republic was enabled to sustain its armies and prosecute the war; for the productive lands of the west, though depleted of men, were well supplied with agricultural machinery of improved and recent pattern. William F. Draper, chairman of the house committee on patents, discoursed on the influence of inventions on cotton industries, showing how manufactures had been fostered by improvements in machinery for gathering and preparing the crop and shaping it into fabrics. A plan for an international union for the protection of property in patents, prepared by Swiss contributors, provoked considerable discussion, several of the speakers urging the abolition of the section of the revised statutes which limited the term of an American patent to the shortest term of a foreign patent.
Agriculture was the next topic presented for consideration, and in this group were included not only farming and stock-raising, but farm life, training, and experiment, the construction and care of roads, the veterinary art, and among other subjects, ornithology in its relation to insect pests. To Samuel W. Allerton, who, with Edwin Walker, constituted the first congressional committee to secure the location of the Fair, was intrusted the general direction of the congresses, and present on the platform at the opening session were several chiefs of departments, with many distinguished visitors from foreign lands. By C. C. Bonney were briefly stated the main objects of the agricultural congresses; Allerton declared the condition of the farmer in every way preferable to that of the industrial classes in the city; Lady Somerset related briefly her experience as an English landowner, giving way to Joanne Sorabji of Hindostan, who spoke of the magnificent specimens of physical womanhood in the agricultural districts.
W. J. Buchanan, chief of the Agricultural department, declared that he would not exchange the outdoor education he had received in the country for all the college lore that could be placed before him. But the speech which attracted most attention was that of J. Sterling Morton, secretary of the national department of agriculture, who inveighed against granges and other agricultural organizations, which, as he said, "for political purposes farmed the farmer." The gauge of battle thus thrown down was taken up on the succeeding day by Colonel J. B. Brigham of Ohio, who thus  took exception to the secretary�s remarks. "Every advance, every new invention of farm machinery, every experiment which has been helpful to the farmer, has been promoted by the grange, and if it were not for the grange and the alliance, our country would have no secretary of agriculture." Continuing, he asserted that it would be better for congress to have more of the agricultural element in the halls of legislature, and then when the great struggle came between political corruption and political integrity, the country would turn for salvation to the men of the farm. Agricultural interests in the south were discussed by a Louisiana woman, who spoke of the close attention to drainage, fertilization, and suitable machinery, as applied to the production of sugar, claiming that in no industry common to the United States was cultivation more thorough than on a sugar plantation. Other speakers dealt with the educational and social features of farm organization, and with what Connecticut had done for agriculture, especially in the raising of choice live-stock and the establishment of state experimental stations.
In the congress on agricultural training and experiment, the directors of the stations scattered through the states, forming the membership of the national association, discussed the work of their institutions and their plans for the future. The road congress was of special interest to the farming community. It was held by the chairman, Theodore Butterworth, that while the United States led the world in its railways, it was behind European countries in highway roads. A. A. Pope of Boston took an active part in the proceedings, as from the commencement he has in the agitation over defective roads, so detrimental to the well-being of American agriculturists. Various plans were suggested for the construction and drainage of highways, with systems of cooperation between farmers and residents of villages, or of county and state taxation. The general consensus of opinion, however, seemed to favor special legislation by the states.
By chief Buchanan was prepared the programme which, during July and August, was carried out in the assembly hall adjoining the Agricultural building. Here subjects were discussed relating to all the divisions of his department; horticulture, agriculture proper, live-stock, and forestry, the lectures on forestry alone covering a period of ten days. Such topics were considered as the scientific care of forests, the latest methods of tree planting, the effects upon climate of tree culture and of the denudation of woodlands, with the best means of destroying insects harmful to the crops. There was also contributed by delegates a great variety of information concerning the forests and timber trees of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. Among those who participated were B. E. Fernow, chief of the government forestry division; A. S. Hardy, Canadian commissioner of crown lands; Robert Hudson of New South Wales; Alfred B. King, commissioner for Siberia; J. J. Grinlinton, commissioner for Ceylon; C. B. Waldron of the state agriculture college at Fargo, South Dakota; C. S. Sargent of New York, and M. L. Saley of Chicago, the last named speaker taking as his text "ignorance concerning woods."
J. C. Vaughan was general chairman of the horticultural congress, which dealt with subjects of special and general interest, J. M. Samuels of the horticultural department, and John Thorpe, superintendent of the floricultural bureau, being members of the executive committee. Representatives were present from Germany, France, Holland, Denmark, and other European countries where the raising of fruits and flowers has been made a study, as well as from the eastern, middle, and western states, in which these industries are most developed. The seedsmen and nurserymen occupied separate halls, the papers submitted covering such topics as the care of public grounds, the work of experiment stations, the past, present, and future of floriculture in the United States, and how best to protect the interests of those who first raised distinct species of plants. L. Wittmack of Berlin took for his theme "�horticultural displays at future world�s fairs," intimating that despite its wonderful landscape effects, the Columbian Exposition was somewhat lacking in floricultural adornment, especially in contributions from foreign lands.
In connection with the agricultural congresses was one on household economics in relation to farm and village communities. This was of course in the hands of women, and of the papers read, especially those on domestic service, some of the most interesting were from foreigners to whom have been accorded exceptional opportunities for studying the problems of domestic life. Frau Morgennstern of Germany, Frau Meyer of Switzerland, and Frau Bundy, president of the Housekeepers� union of Austria were all agreed that in their several countries conditions differed but little from those which here obtain. There was the same difficulty in procuring competent and reliable servants, the same restlessness and instability of character. In Austria, said Frau Bundy, the situation was even worse; for the laws pertaining to domestic service were such as to provoke litigation between employers and employed.  Mrs. John Wilkinson was chairman of the congress on household economics, and Mrs. Laura D. Worley of the one on farm life and mental culture. At the latter most of the addresses were from women; but among the participants were many male representatives from foreign lands. All the speakers dealt with agricultural training in their several countries, some of them also touching on agricultural societies and resources.
Last on the programme was the real estate congress, held under the auspices of the National Real Estate association of the United States, its session beginning a few days before the close of the Fair. In his opening address C. C. Bonney touched on the history of land tenure, which among the Aryan races, even in prehistoric times, was of a threefold nature - first, in common for pasture or public use; second, by allotment for cultivation or business purposes; third, by allotment for homes. Long before history was written, the homestead was held inviolable, and in the doctrine of homestead exemption there was nothing new; for here neither king nor officer might enter unbidden. Homes of moderate value should be free from taxation, and conveyances simple, easily executed, and easily understood; so that property, when not bequeathed by will, would descend to those to whom of right it belonged. Thomas B. Bryan, who was appointed chairman, also urged the simplification of titles, stating that for this purpose were needed not only judicious laws, but permanency and uniformity of legislation.
On behalf of the National Real Estate association, Henry L. Turner welcomed the delegates in apt and complimentary phrase. Suitable responses were made by Albert C. Spam for the eastern states, George A. Armistead for the south, and Thomas Cochran for the west, other speakers being Senator Saunders and Judge Waterman, the latter urging the necessity of providing homes for the working classes. At another session foreign delegates explained the existing usages in their several countries, and one of the subjects discussed was "how and to what extent we can attain national and international uniformity in realty laws." The Torrens system, as it obtains in Australia, with objections to its adoption by the United States, was also considered, and an interesting paper was read on "real estate as the idea asset."
In conclusion it may be said as to the congresses, that white at times their discussions may have been prolix and tiresome, while there was perhaps too much dissertation "de omnibus rebus et quibusdam aliis" many new ideas were evolved, many old ones were presented in better shape, and many a plan was formulated which shall bear fruit long after the material exhibits of the Fair have been scattered among the nations of the earth. To supplement this material display, by adding to the choicest specimens of human achievement the latest developments have been incomplete. Here was the soul of the Exposition, just as in the temples of Jackson park was its body; the one shall perish, but the other shall live again in the lives of millions yet to be.
World�s Fair Miscellany - Early in June the vegetarians held an international conference, beginning with a reception to visiting delegates, after which were lectures and addresses by prominent members of the cult from Europe and the United States. The main purpose was to promote the interests of the Vegetarian Federal union, and to discourage the eating of flesh, though aiding incidentally all temperance movements and agencies. It was claimed by vegetarians that most people were prejudiced against their tenets, and certain it is that what they had to say was worth the hearing; for nearly one half of mankind are vegetarians either through choice or necessity.
At the congress on municipal government Mrs. Alice Lincoln read a paper on tenement houses and the people who live in them, with valuable suggestions as to the erection and care of such houses, especially in New York, where 1,250,000 people lived in flats. As an experiment she had purchased, arranged, and fitted up a tenement block in Boston, and had trained the tenants to ways of cleanliness and morality, with most satisfactory results. The poor should be helped, and above all should be taught to help themselves, to which end she offered many practical hints. Mrs. Florence Kelley spoke on the relations of the municipality to the sweating system, and Mrs. Ralph Trautmann on the sanitary reforms effected by women in New York. At this congress also was considered the subject of commercial arbitration, with other methods of adjusting differences between men and between employers and employed.
At the humane and waifs� saving congresses, held toward the close of the Fair, with David Swing as chairman of the former and Mrs. Perry H. Smith of the latter, several papers were presented by women, among them the countess di Brazza, Mary A. Lovell, and Harriett G. Hosmer.
Among those who took part in the mission congresses was Mary C. Collins, called Winona by the Sioux Indians, among whom she has lived for many years, with Sitting Bull, Rain-in-the-Face, and other Chieftains near her home on the prairie. She stated that she had gone back and forth among them by day and night without meeting with a discourteous word or look, claiming for the Sioux a nobility of character which the world does not seem willing to accord.