The Book of the Fair,
Digital History Project

THE BOOK OF THE FAIR: Chapter the Twenty-Fifth:
Foreign Exhibits
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[885] - At an examination held, not many years ago, at Oxford university, the question was put: "Where is the city of Chicago?" But among these British students, many of whom could read Greek and Latin at sight, and some could write in either language faultless prose and verse, there was not one who could tell the location of what was then a thriving commercial centre and is now the second city in the United States. And so it was when the project for the Columbian Exposition was published broadcast throughout Europe, even cultured men and women asking where Chicago was, while those who knew declared that such an exposition should be held in Washington, New York, Philadelphia, anywhere rather than in Chicago, which, as they said, was merely a distributing point for grain and pork. But as to this they were quickly undeceived through the representations of the commissioners, ignorance, prejudice, and indifference giving way to a wide-spread interest which in many countries ripened into enthusiasm; and not alone in Europe, but in Canada, in Mexico, in Central and South America, in Australia, Japan, and wherever else there are commercial or other relations with the republic. Thus it was that Chicago became the seat of not only the largest but the most cosmopolitan fair that has ever been held, the total of foreign appropriations alone, apart from their exhibits, being almost as much as the entire cost of the Centennial Exposition, and more than thrice that of the London Exhibition of 1851.

Of all the European nations which have met in friendly rivalry with their cousins beyond the Atlantic, there are none that appear to better advantage than Germany, whether in the main departments of the Fair or in her national home at Jackson park. But this is as might be expected from a country in such close commercial and social intercourse with the United States, where there are at least 10,000,000 citizens of German parentage, with more than 100,000 persons migrating each year from the Fatherland. And especially in Chicago does the German element make itself felt, the number of Teutons, either immigrants or of Teutonic parentage, far exceeding the Americans in number, and forming a most desirable factor in the composition of the body politic.

Das Deutsche haus, or the German house, one of the most ornate of the foreign buildings, occupies a prominent site in the [886] northeastern portion of the grounds, fronting on the lake, from which it is separated only by a narrow strip of shore. It is three stories in height; the first of stuccoed brick, and those above of wood and plaster, with basement of rock-faced limestone. In style it is of the sixteenth century renaissance, representing the period of transition from the Gothic. The point of architectural emphasis is on the east facade, with its gabled front and Gothic spires, above which is a tower decorated at its second stage with gilded statues and surmounted by a lantern whose apex is 180 feet above ground. The main entrance is in the form of a triple archway 48 feet in length, the windows above arranged with corresponding effect. The entire front is highly colored and with profusion of decorative scheme. First there are the coats of arms of all the 26 independent states which, under the presidency of Wilhelm II, constitute the German empire. Then there are armor-clad knights with drawn swords defending the imperial crown; above them a sun, and above all, near the summit of the gable, a huge German eagle in black.

To the right extends the main body of the building, its roofs of variegated tiling and studded here and there with dormers. On the northwest corner is a large gable with handsome turrets and rich fresco work. On the western face is an extension which terminates in a buttressed wall with domical roof and stained glass windows. Here is the chapel containing rare specimens of ecclesiastical art, presently to be described. Finally at the southwestern angle is a tall, square tower, with turreted upper stage, a reproduction of the schloss of Aschaffenburg. In the belfry is a chime of bells belonging to the imperial family, and made for a church in the Invaliden park erected by the emperor in honor of his grandmother. The plans for the German house were prepared by Johannes Radke, a government architect attached to the imperial commission, most of the materials and decorations coming in the form of contributions from German firms.

Ascending the stairway in front of the main portal, the visitor comes to a landing which is of itself a work of art, with ceiling tastefully painted and grained, tiled floors, and on the walls, frescoes of Fame and of a cup-bearer to the king. Passing through double glass doors set in arches corresponding to those at the entrance, he enters a lobby surrounded with columns and otherwise tastefully decorated. Thence through triple archways there is access to two spacious halls extending to the northern end of the building, the outer one with [888] galleries on three of its sides, and both with numberless engravings on the walls. Here are the collective exhibits of German publishers, more than 300 in number, arranged in bookcases with projecting wings, each in the form of a miniature booth. There is nothing retrospective in this display, which is intended merely to illustrate the art of book-making and the appliances of the publishing trade, with cognate industries as conducted in the Fatherland. Here are shown methods and specimens of printing, stereotyping, electrotyping, wood-engraving, etching, lithography, chromolithography, and photo-mechanical processes. Bookbinding is also represented, and there are exhibits connected with the music trade. There are cases filled with cuts from illustrated magazines, and of every periodical published in Germany are shown its headlines and typographical style.

In these exhibits expression is given to one of the leading industries of the German empire; for nowhere has the publication and sale of books assumed such enormous proportions. In the empire itself are more than 6,000 establishments distributed among 1,200 cities; in other European countries about 900; in America at least 130, with not a few in Asia, Africa, and Australia. Of nearly 8,000 firms in all, about 40 percent are engaged in the publishing of books, prints, and music, including the reproduction of rare volumes and manuscripts. The remainder consist of booksellers who place their goods on the market through an elaborate system of brokerage, with Leipsic as the centre of distribution, more than 22,000 works being thus introduced in 1891. Bookbinding is also a prominent branch, especially in Berlin and Leipsic, a single house in the latter city producing 1,000,000 bindings and covers a year, varying in price from a cent to $5,000 apiece.

In the chapel beyond is the display of ecclesiastical art, including stained-glass windows, statuary, paintings, altars, vessels, crucifixes, vestments, draperies, and ornaments, with illuminated tests on the softy tinted walls. Within recent years the revolution in church architecture has been accompanied with a transformation in art as applied to interior decorations, both breaking loose from the fetters of classicism and reverting to Gothic forms, with traces of the earlier renaissance. In the latter department the best that has thus far been achieved is fully illustrated in this sanctuary, itself a reproduction of a chapel in some mediaeval German castle.

In an adjacent chamber is a display of presents belonging to members of the royal family and other personages of note. Among them are many historical documents, with copies of treaties which have changed the political geography of Europe, all contained in show-cases of steel, with lids of thickest glass, and guarded night and day. Of Bismarck and Von Moltke there are several things to remind us; of the former a drinking cup presented by the citizens of Frankfort, with gold and silver cases in which was tendered the freedom of many cities; of the latter, his baton and various relics and decorations.

In front of the building and on the right of the main entrance are the reception chambers and offices of the imperial commissioner, Adolph Wermuth. His private room with portal and wainscoting carved in old oak, and ornamented bookshelves surmounted by a panel hand-carved [890] with historic figures, is furnished in primitive style. The carpet is of antique pattern, as are the woodwork and draperies, while between two of the windows stands a hall clock some ten feet high and designed after one of the spires of Strasbourg cathedral, the dial with numerals painted on triangular pieces of ivory. There is a porcelain fireplace, colored in blue, and above the grate a tile painting of a wedding party of the olden time. The ceiling is elaborately decorated, and in the centre is depicted a sunrise scene, a contribution from a member of the Royal academy of Berlin. In a southern projection of the building, disconnected from the rest, is the exhibit of the Waldhof cellulose manufactory at Mannheim, its products consisting of the pulp of pine wood and used for the making of paper.

Germany�s day, the 15th of June, the fifth anniversary of the accession of Wilhelm II, was one of the events of the Fair, the attendance far exceeding all previous records, with more than 200,000 persons admitted into the grounds, of whom at least 50,000 were Germans. The exercises were held in front of the Deutsche haus, beginning with music and singing, after which Harry Rubens, in the name of the German-Americans, delivered an address of welcome to the imperial representatives. After "Die Wacht am Rhein" rendered by the maennerchor chorus, Baron von Hollenben, the German minister, responded on behalf of the government, and then the oration of the day was delivered by Carl Schurtz, whose speech was of a patriotic character, touching on the loyalty of those who, while leal to the country of their adoption, still held in honor the Fatherland. He was proud of the German display in all departments of the Exposition; for here was embodied the spirit of the nation, expressing in every branch of industry and art the highest results of which that nation was capable. Commissioner Wermuth, who followed, spoke of the commerce of Germany, as contrasted with that of the United States, predicting that the dawn of the coming century would witness a revolution in the commercial conditions of the world. The closing address was by Carter H. Harrison who appeared, as he said, somewhat at a disadvantage, having to speak against a brass band and a thunderstorm. A parade, in several divisions, with floats, tally-ho coaches, and more than 16,000 people in line was a feature of the day. Late in the afternoon there was a concert at Festival Hall, and at night a pyrotechnic exhibition, in which the figures of Germania and Columbia stood side by side in tracery of fire.

[891] - The French pavilion occupies one of the choicest sites in Jackson Park, east of the Art Palace and close to the shore of the lake. It is of the classic order, and consists of two structures connected by a colonnade, with a garden between. Under the portico of the north front are views of Paris, and especially of its government buildings, with replicas of famous statuary in the vestibules and balconies. The interior plan differs from that of other foreign structures, most of the space being devoted to exhibition purposes, and with the quarters of the commission held in subordination to the rest.

From the vestibule the visitor passes into a chamber resembling the salon of the palace of Versailles, where, on the 6th of February, 1778, was concluded the treaty between France and the United States, this being the first recognition of the latter by a European power. Years afterward were placed in this salon all the articles presented on behalf of the republic to the Marquis de Lafayette, and these are arranged in its reproduction precisely as in the original, thus forming a graceful tribute to the nation whose cause the marquis made his own. Among them is the sword presented by congress when, in 1779, he returned to his native land to solicit aid for the struggling republic. The handle, mountings, and scabbard are of appropriate design and most elaborate workmanship; the blade, hidden during the reign of terror in the garden of Chavagniac, and there corroded with rust, being replaced with one presented by the people of Paris and forged from metal taken from the ruins of the Bastille. In this collection are several of Washington�s letters, and rings containing locks of his own and Martha Washington�s hair, one of them presented to Lafayette during a farewell visit to the tomb of his former comrade-in-arms. Other features are the busts of Washington and Franklin, portraits of historic characters, and the decoration of the order of Cincinnatus, also termed the "decoration of the soldier-laborer," presented by Washington to Lafayette, and established in 1783 for distribution among French and American officers who had served in the war of independence.

Across the garden is the exhibit of the city of Paris, illustrating in its entirety the municipal system of the metropolis. First is the police department, where is shown the Bertillon method of identifying criminals by means of photographs. In a large case is a complete rogues� gallery, and something more than this; for here is displayed every type of forehead, eye, nose, ear, and lip, with profile, full face, and head, all grouped for anthropological comparison. Near by is the school exhibit, with specimens of work, including those from the Prevost orphanage, and from a printing and bookbinding school where pupils are admitted at the age of twelve to serve a four years� apprenticeship. Here also are models of street cleaning machinery, while the fire department is represented in photographs, and in map form are shown the sewerage and water systems, with a section of a house supplied with sanitary apparatus. In one of the rooms is a collection of bric-a-brac from Parisian merchants, with works of decorative art and the finest of Gobelin tapestry. Of the passage-way connecting the two buildings one of the sides is open and with a series of columns rising to the roof. On the other side are depicted scenes in and around Paris with which all the world is familiar. While these are not elaborate works of art, some of them are from prominent artists, Vauthier, for instance, having a sketch of the Bois de Boulogne, and Didier of the Avenue des Champs Elysees and the Place de la Bastille.

It was to commemorate the fall of the Bastille that the 14th of July was selected for the French celebration, this being the 104th anniversary. First of all there was a luncheon or breakfast so-called, given by the consul-general to the French commissioners, [892] exhibitors, and other invited guests. In the afternoon a reception was held on the lawn, the consul standing near the bust of President Carnot and the statue of "Gloria Victis," a replica of Mercie�s group now standing in the Hotel de Ville, showing a winged figure of Victory bearing in her arms a wounded soldier with broken sword in hand. Then, by Commandant Ballincourt, M. Bourbier of the French marines was presented with the cross of the legion of honor in recognition of long and faithful service, the first man thus to be decorated on American soil. There was music by the Iowa band, and from a buffet adorned with morning glories refreshments were served by comely French damsels in Phyrgian caps with tri-colored cockades. Toward dusk the assemblage dispersed after a pleasant and information reunion, one in which there was no speech-making to mar its enjoyment.

In the quantity, if not in the quality of exhibits, Great Britain and her dependencies rank first among foreign participants, occupying a total area of 500,000 square feet, or nearly half the entire floor space of the great exhibition of 1851, the first international exposition worthy of the name. When in March, 1891, Robert Lincoln, as American minister, invited on behalf of his government the cooperation of the United Kingdom, the proposition was somewhat coldly received; for the passage of the McKinley bill still rankled in the hearts of British merchants and manufacturers. A royal commission was appointed and the task of organization accepted by the society of Arts, which had been closely connected with similar enterprises whether at home or abroad. But the entire amount appropriated was only $125,000, and with this nothing could be done on a scale commensurate with the occasion; for other European nations and even one of the British colonies had appropriated from twice to five times that amount.

Gradually, however, the authorities began to realize the all-embracing scope of the coming exposition and the magnificence of its general design. It was then determined to bring the matter more fully before the public; and from this purpose circulars were addressed to prominent firms and personages, including all who had taken part in former exhibitions, advertisements being inserted in the leading newspapers, English, Scotch, and Irish. Thus a widespread interest was aroused, and this was even manifested in the house of Commons where the grant was increased to $300,000 by an almost unanimous vote. Hence in several departments of the Fair Great Britain was enabled to present a fairly creditable display, and especially in the Fine Arts, the galleries of the queen and the royal family, with those of many of the wealthiest citizens and corporations, being placed at the disposal of the Art committee. It was also determined to erect a separate building, to serve as the quarters of the commission and as a contribution to the architectural features of the Fair.

Victoria house, as is styled the British home in Jackson park, is a unique and substantial structure, forming three sides of a quadrangle, its open side enclosed by a raised and balustraded terrace, which almost touches the waters of the lake. Designed by Colonel Edis, architect of the commission, it is in the style of the Tudor, and especially the Elizabethan period, its upper story of half-timber construction, with projecting gables, of which many well-preserved specimens may still be seen in England. But there is also a modern aspect to the building; for on the lower story terra cotta is freely used, with brick facings and mullioned windows. Perhaps the most interesting feature is the decorative scheme and furnishings of the interior, for which nearly all the materials were contributed as loans or gifts, especially by the London firm of Johnstone Norman and company, to which, as to other establishments, the commission acknowledges its obligations.

Passing through a covered portico, the visitor enters a spacious hall, on one side of which are the library and reception room, and on the other the offices. The hall is oak-panelled, with furniture of carved oak in partial imitation of that which belonged to the Medici family, and ceiling copied from the North Wales mansion of Plas Mawr, erected about the year 1550, and better known as Queen Elizabeth�s palace. On a cassone or ornamental coffer of Florentine pattern, as in the royal palace of Naples, is a panel on gilt ground, painted with figures allegorical of Columbus� [894] departure from Spain. At its side is a large arm-chair on which is sculptured in bas-relief "The Discovery of America," with a companion fauteuil in the style of Francois I., known as the cacqueteuse or gossip chair. There are wide old-fashioned fireplaces with huge andirons, and on either side of the grates a lion and unicorn rampant. In the alcoves over the stairway, which is ceiled as in Haddon hall, the seat of the duke of Rutland, are armored knights on pedestals, and here also is what may be termed a "grandfathers� clock," such as those which stood in the homes of "Merrie England."

The library is finished and equipped entirely in oak with ceiling ribbed in geometric forms, to which bookcases extend from the floor. As to the furniture, each piece was designed from the antique, so far at least as it could be adapted to modern requirements. So with the reception room, in whose carved and inlaid furniture are largely represented the manors of mediaeval times, with patterns borrowed from the Louvre and the South Kensington museum; but all with a certain affinity which gives to the collection a just adaptation of parts. A cabinet of ebony and boxwood resembles one made for Archbishop Sharpe in 1621. A Scotch clothespress belongs to the time of James I, and in a walnut cabinet with capriole legs is reproduced a Dutch design of the days of William and Mary. The centre table is a facsimile of that which stands in the dining-room of Windsor castle, and another table resembles the one fashioned for Sir Thomas Holte of Aston hall, a loyal subject of the Stuarts. There is a King Charles chair of ebony, with a Knole chair such as stood in the Kentish residence of the earls of Dorset, and one from Linlithgow palace, belonging to the time of Mary, queen of Scots. In the ingle-nook is a terra cotta fireplace, on the back of which are cast the arms of Great Britain. In a painting by Sargent is depicted the "Jubilee Garden Party at Buckingham Palace," wherein are 400 figures. The ceiling is copied from the banqueting chamber at Crewe hall, one of the finest specimens of Elizabethan architecture.

The waiting-room is ceiled as in Campden house, the residence of the duke of Argyll, and with simpler treatment as to furnishings, except for the antique vases and the embossed leather on the walls, the latter identical in pattern with that which is seen in the ball-room of Sandringham hall, the county seat of the prince of Wales. On the floors of all the rooms are Wilton rugs woven in oriental designs, while the draperies and fabrics are the most finished products of the looms of England and France. On the upper story is the boardroom of the commissioners, furnished in old oak, with seats and lounges such as are used in the Carlton and Reform clubs. Especially handsome is the office of the commissioner, Sir Henry Wood, with low, broad windows overlooking the lake, and tastefully decorated walls hung with the choicest works of art. The veranda is lit by old-fashioned English lamps, the building itself lighted by electricity, the globes concealed by the strap-work of Elizabethan chandeliers.

The house was opened to the public on the queen�s birthday, the 24th of May, but without exercises, except that in the Canadian building there was brief informal speech-making, with singing of the national anthem, followed at night by a banquet given at a Chicago hotel under the auspices of the commissioners. British Empire day fell on the 19th of August, the attendance exceeding 213,000, the largest up to that date except for the 4th of July. At the appointed hour, escorted by the West Point cadets, the detachments selected for the military tournament from the choicest regiments of the British [895] army, among them, "the far-famed Black Watch," formed in line in front of Victoria house. Then came "the trooping of the colors," after which soldiery and civilians adjourned to Festival hall, where, as resident consul and chairman of ceremonies, Colonel Hayes-Sadler delivered the opening address, briefly and with becoming dignity. After "God Save the Queen," rendered by the Columbia chorus, he proposed the name of the president of the United States, the cheers being given with a will, and the mayor of Chicago responding on behalf of his countrymen. As secretary of the royal commission, Sir Henry Trueman Wood discoursed with telling effect on the status and future of the dominion. Other speeches were from the commissioners for Canada, India, Ceylong, Trinidad, and British Guiana, all of which were represented at the Fair. Later there was a concert in the court of honor, followed by the last performance of the tournament, the members of which set forth on the morrow for Toronto. At night there was the usual display of fireworks, and meanwhile a civic and military parade was held in the city, massing on the lake front and after a circuitous route disbanding on Michigan Avenue.

Scotchmen held festivity for an entire week during the term of the Fair, the 4th of August being devoted to exercises in the reception room of the New York building and later in Festival Hall, under the auspices of the Scottish directory. These were brief and of informal character, the Scottish choral union being present at the second meeting, where national airs were played on bagpipes, with dancing of the Highland fling. The Welsh and Irish had also their special days, the former on the 8th and the latter on the 30th of September. In a pouring rain the Irish parade assembled on the Midway plaisance, only 2,000 strong, instead of the 30,000 that had been expected. Nevertheless it was an imposing procession, with bands galore and several military companies, conspicuous among which were the old Hibernian rifles. There were the Foresters, the ancient order of Hibernians, the Gaelic athletic associations, temperance and church societies, civic and literary organizations, with invited guests in carriages and tally-ho coaches. Everything and everybody was arrayed in green; the women with green dresses and hats, the men with green cravats and badges, and the horses with green plumes; while over the Electricity building floated the green flag of Erin, and even the lake assumed for the occasion a deeper hue of emerald.

The exercises were held in Festival hall, where Archbishop Feehan, as chairman of the day, delivered the opening speech. After an eloquent tribute to the artificers of the Fair, in honor of which they were met together, he continued in part as follows: "But the Irish-American people assemble for another motive, and that is to revive for today, and I hope for the future, the traditions as well as the aspirations of one of the oldest races of the world. You represent a most ancient people; for your forefathers came from Phoenicia 3,000 years ago, and founded a nation at the time when Moses was leading the Israelites from Egypt, and when Cadmus was giving letters to the world. Even at that early period the Irish were a people with a written law and of advanced civilization. And today, toward the close of the nineteenth century, the Irish-American people recall those grand progenitors and keep alive their traditions." Then spoke Archbishop Hennessy of Dubuque, followed by Edward Blake, who as a representative of the Irish party in the Commons, chose for his theme "Home Rule," and in conclusion read a letter from Gladstone, in which were the following words: "I learn with great pleasure that there is to be an Irish day during the World�s Fair. There could not be a more interesting, nor except on the day of the final victory, a more encouraging occasion." Among other speakers [896] were Arthur O�Connor, James Shanks, lord-mayor of Dublin, and Father Ring, who read a dispatch from the primate of Ireland. There was music, with singing of national airs and ballads, a feature in which was the rendition in harp solo of ancient Gaelic melodies by a daughter of A. M. Sullivan, the Irish orator. Later a reception at Blarney castle concluded the celebration.

On the plaza in front of Victoria house, and almost opposite the Canadian building, is a group of statuary in terra-cotta, a replica of the American pier piece on the pedestal of the Albert memorial column at Kensington, erected by order of the queen in honor of the prince-consort and of the great exhibition of 1851. The figures are of heroic size, with America in the centre in the form of a shapely Indian maiden mounted on a buffalo, in Indian costume and with figured head-dress; in her right hand a stone-headed lance, and in her left a shield emblazoned with national emblems. The United States is represented by an eagle with outstretched wings; Canada by a beaver and by a young girl robed in furs; Brazil by the Southern Cross; Mexico by a male figure, and South America by a half-breed Indian with bronco and sombrero. It is in the main an excellent piece of workmanship, though somewhat heavy in tone and bulk, weighing 25 tons and costing $25,000. By Henry Doulton, proprietor of the Doulton pottery works at Lambeth, where it was fashioned, the group was presented to the city of Chicago, "as a connecting link between the first international exposition and the last and crowning one."

[898] - Canada is well represented, as we have seen, in the main divisions of the Fair, much more so indeed in some departments than the mother country, in relation to industrial conditions. That the dominion would appear to good advantage in her agricultural and horticultural, her fisheries and mining exhibits, was expected of this enterprising and ambitious commonwealth; but in other branches also her exhibits were of excellent quality. In the annex of the Transportation building, for instance, the vestibuled train of the Canadian Pacific was a feature of the display, while in the building itself was a choice assortment of carriages, buggies, wagons, boats, and railroad and other supplies. In the palace of Mechanic Arts her collections were somewhat of a surprise; but perhaps the greatest surprise was in the hall of Manufactures and Liberal Arts. While here was no large array of costly luxuries, there was a comprehensive and varied assortment of staple lines and standard grades, the groups of textile fabrics and especially of cotton goods attracting general attention. So with the educational groups; Ontario, Quebec, and other provinces fully illustrating their thorough and practical systems of instruction, from the kindergarten to the college and university.

The Canadian pavilion, the plans for which were designed by the department of the public works at Ottawa, is in the form of a quadrangle, surrounded with wide verandas supported by Tuscan columns, with semi-circular projection on the front and surmounted by a tower with look-out, the view from which is one of the finest in Jackson park. There is little in the way of exhibits, except for the structure itself, its apartments finished in polished native woods representing the various provinces. Passing through the main portal, the visitor finds in the entrance hall a post-office, telephone office, and intelligence office, where registers afford information as to hotel and other accommodation, together with the whereabouts of friends. In the reception room adjoining, its walls and pillars festooned with flags, are files of Canadian newspapers from every portion of the dominion, and near at hand are the quarters of the national commission, of which J. S. Larke is chief executive officer, while across the corridor are those of the commissioners for the provinces.

At the top of a spacious stairway, also constructed of native woods, is a corridor adorned with photographic views of Canadian scenery and mounted specimens of Canadian birds. At either end are exits to the balconies which encircle the pavilion, and on the right of the staircase, two other offices for the national commissioners, Senator Tasse and G. R. R. Cockburn. Across the corridor is a dining-room, where many have been entertained with the hospitality characteristic of the dominion. Adjoining is a ladies� parlor, and elsewhere are the apartments of C. F. Law and Senator Perley, commissioners for British Columbia and the Northwest territories, with that of W. D. Dimock, secretary of the Canadian commission, who for many years has been engaged in similar service in connection with international and local exhibitions. Finally there is the sanctum of the press, and on the floor above are the tower and smoking rooms far above ground. No plaster is used in any part of the interior, the walls and ceilings all being finished in native woods handsomely polished, as I have said, and showing the native grain - oak, pine, chestnut, walnut, cherry, maple, birch, ash, spruce, cedar, and butternut. Over a bold dental cornice is an open balustrade, and the roof is low pitched and partially concealed by a paraquet wall. Around the pavilion is a plat of ground, green turfed, dotted with Canadian shrubbery, and divided by serpentine walks and roadways.

The 1st of July, the 26th anniversary of the confederation, was selected as Dominion day, a day held in no less honor by its citizens than is the 4th of July by those of the United States. The celebration began with an informal reception at the pavilion, followed by a military and civic parade and by exercises at Festival hall. [900] Among the audience were not only thousands of Canadians and former subjects of the queen, but there were also many thousands of Americans; so that in his opening address Commissioner Cockburn observed: "If ever I harbored a doubt that Americans were not true friends to Canada, this assemblage would forever put such a feeling at rest." Senator Tasse of Quebec spoke in French, the applause which accentuated his remarks showing that the French-Canadians "a very nice class of people, whose interest were parallel with those of the union, and whose government lay in parallel lines," predicting also that the time was not far distant when "one flag would float over the country from the far south to the far north." To this Commissioner Larke responded by reminding the mayor that parallel lines never meet. But all was said in amicable mood; for between the dominion and the union, as between the union and the united kingdom, the breach, if such there be, is more in fancy than in fact.

Adjacent to the Canadian pavilion is Australia house, or as it should rather be termed, the home of New South Wales; for in the structure and nearly all that it contains is represented only this, the oldest of the Australias. While serving among other purposes as the headquarters of the commissioners, it is also an exhibition building, especially as to the fine arts, from which department, as we have seen, the colony was almost excluded, not for lack of merit but through misapprehension. Of sculpture there are several pieces, two of them portrait busts in plaster and others carved in native marble and freestone. Of oil paintings there is a large collection, executed by members of the Art society in Sydney. They embrace a great variety of subjects, from portraits of premiers and primates to the hunting of wild ducks; and it is worthy of note that, with rare exceptions, they deal with local themes and personages. Landscapes, with sketches and genre paintings of Australian life are the favorite subjects, some of them finished canvases and nearly all above amateur rank. In water colors there are more than 100 works from the same society, most of them by Mrs. Ellis Rowan of Victoria, representing the flora of Australia, all studies from nature, and combining with richness and delicacy of coloring, boldness of execution and skill in technique.

The building itself is at least on a par with others of its classes, 60 feet square, with a spacious portico in front, the roof of which is supported by Doric columns, with pilasters of the same order at each of the corners. The frieze and balustrade extend around the entire edifice; above all the openings are moulded [901] architraves, and beneath each window, moulded modillions. In the interior is a central nave 30 feet wide, from which rises a polygonal dome, giving accentuation to the architectural scheme.

In the India building the ancient glories of Agra, with its changing fortunes, are fully typified, and here are models in marble and alabaster of many monuments which testify to the former power of Moslem and Hindoo. Even the famous mausoleum is shown in miniature, the original bearing a dome of marble 70 feet in diameter. The structure itself is an harmonious combination of Arabic and Indian architecture, minarets springing from above the main entrance and corners, the former painted in oriental style. While the exhibits are unique and comprehensive, perhaps the most interesting feature is a party of Hindoos of high caste who have come to America partly on a proselyting and partly on a business mission.

Great Britain is of course represented in the industrial and historic collections of the India building, and especially the India tea association and the Bengal chamber of commerce. Near the principal entrance is a tea room, where the beverage as made in India is served by native attendants in picturesque attire, and presented in porcelain hand-painted by native artists. Small tables are placed in shady corners of the hall, where the visitor may enjoy the variegated picture presented by the art manufactures of the empire, scattered profusely around him and in the galleries above. In the centre of the main floor is a marble shrine, elaborately carved and colored, standing about the height of a tall man. On thousands of such shrines in India are images of the Hindoo trinity - Brahma, the creator; Vishnu, the preserver; and Siva, the destroyer; but here are no sacred effigies, except that on either side is a figure of Buddha, screened by the hood of the sacred cobra from the scorching rays of the sun, while the eastern savior of mankind is absorbed in worship or contemplation. Carved in stone or wood, hammered from brass, painted and embroidered on silk or satin, are also such minor divinities as Agni, the god of fire, who burns the body that he may recreate it in celestial form; Doorga, wife of Siva, with three eyes and ten arms; Sudra, the king of heaven, and Tama, the judge of the dead; Krishna, one of Vishnu�s many incarnations, and the elephantine Ganesha, symbol of prudence.

A superb display of art manufactures is made by Tellery and company, whose headquarters are at Delhi, with branches in Calcutta, Bombay, and Simla. Ever article is fashioned by hand, and the entire exhibit is intended to illustrate the efforts of business men to check the importation of goods which threatens to overwhelm the native industries of the country. Since rich and poor alike utilize their savings in the making of silver articles, either for personal adornment or practical use, the trade in silverware has assumed a leading position, centring at Kashmir, Lucknow, Kutch, Madras, Poona, Kuttack, and Burmah. While these articles are all in repousse work, handsomely wrought, they have also their characteristics, according to the locality in which they were made. The influence of Mohammedanism is shown in the Kashmir wares, whose ornamentations are exclusively floral in character, the designs being chiefly taken from shawl patterns. Raised mythological figures, relieved by floral decorations, give to the articles collected from Madras and Poona their pleasing effect. But the Burmese repousse work on silver is considered the most artistic, the exhibits from all these points comprising tea and coffee sets, wine jugs, sugar bowls, candlesticks, bread baskets, photograph frames, cream and milk jugs, salt cellars, pepper casters, card and cigarette cases, toilet sets, and boxes of many descriptions. There is also an attractive display of articles wrought in brass and copper, chiselled, embossed, engraved, enamelled, and incrusted in a variety of designs and with a richness of [902] effect which is the best possible proof of the skill and patience of artisan and designer.

Piled upon counters and tables on the ground floor and in the galleries are rich silks, many of them woven from Chinese material; brocades worn by Hindoo ladies; Kashmir shawls and silk embroideries; silver tinsels from the hand looms of Delhi and Agra; gold leaf cotton prints, studded with glass, from Poona; cloths covered with designs in wax and sprinkled with mica; woollen and cotton carpets and rugs, with goods of silk and cotton printed and embroidered.

Carvings in black, sandal, and teak woods are exhibited as specimens of an industry which has flourished in India for many centuries. In ancient times carvers in wood ornamented the thrones of kings and princes, the chariots of warriors, and the shrines of temples. These were the days when the facades, doors, windows, balconies, partition screens, and furniture in the dwellings of the rich were elaborately decorated, the custom gradually spreading to the west. The most intricate work in sandal wood comes from the Madras and Bombay presidencies, Mysore and Burmah, the Burmese carvings being especially bold and fantastic. The Punjab and the northwest provinces supply the best inlaid specimens, their most noticeable characteristic being the combination of brass wire with dark colored woods. Beautiful lacquer work, ivory carvings, water color paintings on ivory, most of them miniatures of the Magul emperors, enamels on gold and silver, idols and sacred animals in marble, such as are seen in the temples, and the delicate pottery which the high cast Hindoo will never use but once, are presented in many forms and symphonies of coloring.

Finally there are relics and curios, some of historic character. One of the most remarkable is a collection of swords, battle-axes, matchlocks, powder-horns, spears, bows, arrows, and shields, representing the weapons of the Hindoos and Mohammedans, the Burmese and the warlike Mahrattas. There are the finest of Damascus blades, the steel of which is said to have come from India, the entire group suggestive of the wars and conquests of ancient and modern times. Old manuscripts and pictures, antique musical instruments, bronze vessels and idols from Thibet and Nepal, Indian, Indo-Scythian and Graeco-Bactrian coins, and a quantity of chinaware sent long ago by the emperors of the celestial kingdom as tribute to the Mogul emperors, are among the curiosities here displayed.

There are also living curiosities in the East India building, among them one Gobind Burshad, a Brahmin high-priest, and the first one, as he claims, to visit the United States. Gobind is a man of striking appearance, with met black hair slightly tinged with grey and features thoughtful and intent. He is a scholarly man withal, speaking English, Mogul, and Persian fluently, in addition to Hindostanee. What please him best is to discuss theosophy and to show his knowledge of the ancient traditions of his native land, especially as to its gods, of which there are many n this temple - gods of brass and bronze, of ivory and wood, of silver, gold, and precious stones. Of all the antique specimens he knows the history, and taking up, for instance, an ivory statuette will declare that is came from a Buddhist temple where 1,000 years ago, it was worshipped as the god of war.

Of the courts which represent the British colony of Ceylon, two are in the departments of Agriculture and Manufactures, one in the Woman�s building, and the fourth remains to be described. Except of course in the Manufactures division, all are mainly intended to place before the public the tea industries of the country as developed within recent years, exports of tea increasing from 23 pounds in 1873 to 162,000 pounds in 1880, and 72,000,000 in 1892. Since he coffee plantations were almost destroyed by the ravages of a fungoid pest, the cultivation of tea has become the staple industry of Ceylon, and [903] for its products are claimed special dietetic properties, with superior richness of flavor and absolute purity and cleanliness. By the Planters� association of the chamber of commerce funds were promptly subscribed, and a local committee, acting in accord with the royal commission in London, undertook the task of organizing the exhibits, J. J. Grinlinton, as special commissioner, proceeding to Chicago to secure the necessary space.

The Ceylon court, which serves at once as government building, exhibition hall, and tea kiosk, consists of a central octagon, with wings facing north and south, raised on a projecting basement and approached by stairways carved in designs from ruined fanes, some of them erected several centuries before the Christian era. In its columnar design the structure is mainly of the Dravidian order of architecture, adopted with modifications in the ancient temples of the Cingalese. Native woods only are used as materials, some 20,000 feet of timber being cut and shaped for the purpose. The framework of the exterior is of satinwood and the projecting roofs terminate at the eaves line in ornamental valance tiling, the roofs themselves being covered with imitation pantils, rising at the centre in tiers and culminating in a spire, with finial as in the temple of the Sacred Tooth of Buddha.

In the octagonal hall, entered through a handsomely carved doorway, the ceiling is supported by pillars on which are designs of the lotus and plantain, fashioned as in the royal temple and the king�s granary at Kandy. A score of native pillars; among them ebony, tamarind, satin and ironwood, their names, whether botanical or in plain English or Cingalee, being indicated on labels. On opposite sides of the hall are colossal figures of Buddha and Vishnu, with others, disposed at intervals, of a Buddhist priest and his bowl for receiving alms, of a Kandyan chief, and a Veddah and his wife, very few of the aboriginal Veddahs now remaining alive. The panels are painted by native artists, the most interesting being those which represent the religious processions, with figures of tom-tom beaters, standard bearers, pikemen, elephants, and devil-dancers.

The exhibits, contained in cases of ebony and satinwood, are grouped around the octagon and wings, consisting, apart from tea and coffee, of native manufactures, works of art, and curios; among them jewelry and the quaintest of carvings in ivory, ebony and cocoanut shells. Of tea there are fifty varieties from twice as many plantations, and in the tea kiosk above the central hall the beverage is served as in Kandy or Colombo. In this apartment are paintings of modern design, its decorations resembling those of the chamber below, but of less elaborate pattern. Recesses are formed by a double row of pillars hung with oriental draperies; and here are tea-poys, or ornamental tables, made of satin and margosa woods.

On a triangular site opposite the Fisheries building is a picturesque structure of many colors, towers appearing upon different portions, with a tall spire rising from the centre, the entire edifice being a combination of church and castle architecture. The main hall, hexagonal in shape, is 60 feet across; above it is a cupola, and above this a steeple with flagstaff, from which is displayed the Swedish ensign, some 150 feet above ground. The building was forwarded in sections from Sweden and so constructed as to represent the style prevailing in churches and country homes in the time of Columbus. Worked [905] artistically into the base of the main facade are specimens of the brick, terra cotta, and cement work produced by the most prominent manufactories in Sweden. Here also, as in the staircase, are tiles of polished cement; but with these exceptions the entire structure is of wood.

The exhibits include one of the most complete collections of Swedish iron, both in the ore and manufactured forms, that has ever been seen in America. The most scientific display, designed to illustrate the metallurgy of iron and steel, is made by the association of Swedish iron masters, the object of which is to promote this industry in every possible way. It advances money to its members to assist them in extending their works, making appropriations also for the purpose of conducting experiments and investigating new processes. Several iron and steel works show iron ores from various mines, such manufactures as ingots and billets of Martin and Bessemer steel, subjected to tests for strength, ductility, and other desirable qualities. Drawn wire and wire rope, cast steel goods and materials of war, rolled pipes, iron in bars and sheets, hammers and tools for working stone, minerals, and wood, are also displayed, together with engine and car wheels, anchors, anvils, parts of steam engines, and other mechanisms.

By the geological department of the government are exhibited glass models and maps of the Gladhammer, Ljusnarsberg, and other mines. There are also earthenware and glass products, gold and silver work, fire and facing bricks, tiles and ornaments for mural decorations, yellow, brown-glazed, and gray-burned; unglazed vessels, pedestals, and garden decorations, as well as glazed earthenware pipes and tubes, pottery for household and chemical uses, and earthenware stoves, table sets, and toilet ware. In the line of glassware are many articles for the table, cut, plain, etched, and gilded, and various exhibition cups for art museums, for which awards were received at expositions held in Paris, Moscow, Copenhagen, Bogota, Philadelphia, and several cities in Sweden. Among objects representing art metal work may be mentioned a buckler of chased steel-plate, with border ornaments in old Scandinavian style, gilt and deeply etched. A viking ship in full sail is seen in the centre, around it a score of scenes founded upon the Saga. Lamps of chased brass and vases of steel attract much attention, with fans and jewel cases of the latter metal, variously etched and gilded. There are also sets of silver church plate, a toilet service of silver gilt formerly belonging to Queen Sophia Magdalena, the reproduction of a cup presented in 1631 to Gustavus Adolphus by the citizens of Nuremberg, and collections of antique drinking cups and jewelry associated with the history of the country. Mention should also be made of the exhibits of wood pulp, wrapping and printing paper, and other factory products for which Sweden is famous.

[906] - Elsewhere are imitations of Venetian lace, knitted shawls and coverlets, embroidered underwear, a collection of fans from the Baroness Norderfalk, and an exhibit of hangings, tapestries, and carpets from the Friends of handiwork, a Stockholm association founded a score of years ago fro the encouragement of art industry among Swedish women. Private exhibitors also show embroideries in the style of the Lapps, portieres, carvings in wood, antique furniture covered with Gobelin and gilt leather, and silk embroideries and screens. Another attraction in the government pavilion is a representation of a Swedish home, in a suite of rooms completely furnished and decorated according to native customs by the Industrial Art society, which in cooperation with agricultural organizations has done much for the improvement of domestic industries. Various manufacturers and house furnishers, as well as makers of curtains, portieres, and wall hangings, together with sculptors and painters, add to the exposition of household decorations as understood in this country of home-loving people.

In contrast with these is the exhibit of the Swedish tourists� clubs, showing not only typical costumes and outfits but the attractions offered the pleasure seeker. There are models of snow-skates, toboggans, and sledges propelled by the foot; sections of boats that have been used by the Royal Swedish sailing club ever since its foundation; reproductions of yachts and fishing boats such as ply along the coast of Sweden; skates for racing and for military service, with the sails by which skaters are propelled, and yachts that skim over the ice.

In the background is a large picture of the capital of Sweden with its royal castle, near which are life size figures in wax attired in national garb. In panoramic form are shown a Swedish landscape and a Swedish cottage with its inmates; while of landscape paintings belonging to legitimate art, the best are those of the Ljungans river valley. There are hunting scenes in which the bear and fox are the central figures; Lapps are depictured roaming over [908] their snow-covered plains, and on canvas are transcribed the most striking views in the neighborhood of Stockholm, with its approach by sea. In statuary the bust of Gustavus Adolphus is a well executed composition, and in portraiture there are Charles XII and Oscar II. Thus it will be seen that here, as in the palace of Fine Arts, the works of native artists incline to domestic themes and personages.

In the galleries are the exhibits which illustrate the prevailing systems of mental and physical education, together with a large collection of publications, globes, and instruments, forming the Swedish section of the Liberal Arts department. From the directress of needlework at the public schools of Stockholm comes a series of models illustrating her system of instruction, while the most approved methods of teaching sloyd are represented by the normal school at Naas. Technical schools and special institutions display the articles made by their pupils, the Agricultural society of Blekinge having a series of models in woodwork, with textile fabrics and objects fashioned of bone. Elsewhere, in drawings, photographs, models, and apparatus, the Royal and other gymnastic institutes show what is being done in the way of physical training.

Viewed in its entirety, the Swedish exhibition forms a complete presentation of the industrial and social condition of the kingdom, and for this much credit is due to the royal commissioner, Artur Leffler, whose zealous and intelligent efforts are worthy of all commendation. Swedish day fell on the 20th of July, and was quietly celebrated. A parade including many societies was reviewed in front of the national building, assembling later in Festival hall, where a concert was held, after which came fireworks and a procession of floats.

Norways� contributions to the Fair are divided among several departments. Her fisheries� exhibit is one of the best of its kind; in the hall of Manufactures is a large display installed in a pavilion of Norway pine; in the Agricultural section the groups, though small, are remarkable for their attractive setting; while the Norwegian gallery in the Art department is not unworthy of the genius of her [909] painters. The government building, in which are no exhibits, is a unique composition of the Stavkirke style of architecture, representing a church of the twelfth century, a cross-gabled edifice, with peaks ornamented, as in the days of Leif Erickson, with the prows of Viking ships. It is fashioned by Norwegian firms for shipment to Mediterranean and other ports. The idea of an old Norse church is also carried out in the interior decorations, in the massive beams and simple but effective carvings.

Several times during the term of the Fair the Norsemen held celebration. The two most noteworthy occasions were the arrival of the Viking ship from Norway, described in the Transportation chapter, and the dedication of the pavilion, on May 17th, in commemoration of the 79th anniversary of independence. The procession, which marched to Festival hall, consisted of Scandinavian workmen, members of Norwegian lodges, riflemen, turners, and a number of girls in native costume - blue skirt, with bands of red braid around the bottom, a bright red waist with white sleeves, and a white apron. Knute Nelson, governor of Minnesota, spoke in his native tongue; and Congressman Haugan, of Wisconsin, and Julius E. Olson of the state university were also among the speakers, the latter making some pertinent remarks on the occasion which they had met to commemorate.

The Turkish building, opposite the Fisheries pavilion, is a small but unique edifice, typical in style of architecture and with oriental decorations. Its plan is in imitation of a fountain opposite the Babi-Hama-Youn in Constantinople, erected some two centuries ago by Sultan Ahmed III. The exterior is entirely covered with wood carvings executed in Damascus specially for the purpose, and it is estimated that twenty workmen were employed for six months on these panels of intricate design.

The structure is used for displaying the collective exhibits from all the countries over which the star and crescent flies. Most of them are fabrics of such rich texture and intrinsic value that they are protected by glass cases, which form an irregular circle around the room and rise to the ceiling. In the centre is a star-shaped case and around it are grouped the exhibits of mechanical and scientific productions, a display which tells of remarkable progress within the last few years. Turkish rugs and pearl inlaid work from the Damascus take the lead, but gold and silver embroidery and silks, ranging in color from the most delicate tints to the most gorgeous hues, occupy much of the space. Chibouques, their long stems covered with gold and jewels, beautiful silver ornaments, bracelets, earrings, and the high-heeled patterns worn in Turkish baths, are side by side with torpedoes, soaps, scents, minerals, and coffees.

Back of the main building are the quarters of the imperial commission, with offices, a coffee-room, and a large reception room, decorated with gaily-colored silks, embroideries, and tapestry, with divans of oriental fashion, native furniture, paintings, and bric-a-brac.

On the opening day, the 26th of June, the building appeared at its best, and was the theme of general comment by hundreds of foreign and state commissioners, Fair officials, and invited guests. "Long Life to the Sultan," was the inscription above the portals through which they passed between lines of Syrians and Bedouins from the Midway plaisance, gorgeously attired. The visitors were presented to Ibrahim Hakky Bey, commissioner-general, and to the imperial commissioner, Ahmed Fahri Bey, then to the other members of the commission, after which they were escorted through a group of gaily costumed Turks to the reception room, the space between it and the main structure containing a Turkish marquee.

Luncheon was served in Turkish fashion, except that champagne took the place of coffee, and there was music by the Second Regiment band of Chicago. Assisting Hakky Bey and Fahri Bey were several of the members of the commission, Charles Henrotin as consul-general and Sursock Effendi as consul acting as hosts. All the [910] Turks wore European costumes, Prince Albert coats, black trousers, neatly fitting gloves, and on the head a red black-tasselled fez. The ceiling was draped with the rarest of Turkish silks, and the walls were covered with hangings of the richest quality, attendants in the garb of the orient and occident being stationed in the doorways and corners. A few short speeches were made; but there were no formal exercises, and this was declared to be one of the most pleasant receptions ever held in Jackson Park.

Spain�s official building was modelled after the historic merchants exchange building at Valencia, known as La Lonja, built in the style of architecture which marked the transition period from the Gothic to the renaissance. While Columbus was in Lisbon, soliciting the aid of King John, the silk merchants of Valencia were negotiating with one Pedro Comte, a leading architect of the day, for the erection of a suitable edifice. In 1482 it was completed; and in its reproduction is well represented the composite architecture of the times. It is a massive structure of buff sandstone, the square tower at one end, the arched doorway, the pointed windows, each terminating in a cross, the fretwork ornamentations, the mail-clad warriors, the figures symbolic of commerce and finance, the heavy cornices, and the parapets solid as those of a fortress, all being faithful copies of the original. The interior is almost devoid of architectural ornaments, except that it is divided in the centre by a row of cathedral-like pillars which extend to the roof, with a series of pilasters on either side. A circular stairway leads to the tower, a facsimile of the prison used in the original for bankrupt or defaulting merchants.

In oil paintings, engravings, prints, and photographs are represented many historic and modern incidents and personages. Near the main entrance is a large painting of Ruiz Luna, entitled, "October 12, 1492," showing Columbus and his crew in two small boats, the caravels being anchored in the offing. Elsewhere the discovered is represented as before the Catholic kings, and here is the hall of the ambassadors at Seville, where centres so much of the history of the Columbian era. Moorish palaces and noted battlefields, with such famous haunts as the garden of the Escurial and the cloisters of the Toledo cathedral, are reproduced in oil and water colors. Rome and Egypt are freely drawn upon for subjects, among them sketches of famous temples, while one of the most powerful paintings in the entire collection is Arpa & Perea�s "Pompey�s Funeral;" the body resting on a blazing pyre, the stolid Moors seated near by on the banks of Nile, and the pyramids in the distance, as nearly symbolic of eternity as handiwork of man can be. Not far away [912] the commanding features of Cortes appear in contrast with studies of old-time and modern peasants, Catalan, Valencian, and Andalusian. There are also the interior of farm-houses, landscapes peaceful and wild, vineyard scenes, and scenes of the mountain and the plain. Specimens of steel and copper etchings are plentiful, and there are drawings showing the plans and decorations of theatres, circuses, hospitals, and public buildings, with carvings in ivory of religious and architectural themes.

La Lonja, it may here be said, was selected for reproduction partly because the Spanish minister at Washington and the commissioner-general, Enrique Dupuy de Lome, were natives of Valencia, the latter preferring as his official headquarters a structure which represents one of the architectural features of that ancient and historic city. The edifice, together with the Spanish pavilions in all the general departments, was opened by Princess Eulalia on the 13th of June. The ceremonies were of the simplest and without formality, the building being tastefully decorated in honor of the occasion, though only completed a few hours before the arrival of the royal party. The princess passed to the entrance-way between borders of yellow daisies, under a canopy of Spanish and American flags, a military band playing the national anthem of Spain. Then came luncheon and the reception of a few friends, with more music, and La Lonja was open to the public.

First among the headquarters of the Latin-American nations may be mentioned Guatemala�s building, near the verge of the north lagoon and southeast of the Art palace. The exterior is of Moorish architecture, with interior plan of home design, and with excellent arrangement for their intended purposes of the roomy and well lighted halls. The structure is of wood and staff, its sides adorned with pictures of tropical plants, of which living specimens are freely displayed in the grounds adjacent, including the finest collection of orchids in Jackson park. In front is a comfortably furnished sitting-room, its walls and columns draped with the national colors. In the centre is an open court, with galleries supported by colonnades, as is the fashion in Spanish-American countries. A terrace extends to the edge of the lagoon, where a landing faces the principal entrance, and for the further accommodation of visitors there is a rustic pavilion partially surrounded with agave and coffee plants, where by waiters attired in the picturesque costumes of the country is served a beverage that rivals the extract of the Mocha or Java berry.

[913] - In common with other Central and South American countries, the exhibits of Guatemala are contained almost entirely within its government building. In the eastern wing a spacious hall is stored with manufactures, relics, and works of art; and here perhaps is the most interesting feature of the display; for while Guatemala is not a manufacturing country, she possesses most of the elements and in embryo many of the industries needed for such development, awaiting only the advent of capital and well directed enterprise. Among the articles arranged in show-cases are silk, woollen, and cotton fabrics, embroideries, clothing, mattings, hammocks of hennequen and agave fibre, musical instruments, crockery, and wooden vessels skillfully carved by hand. Of relics there are pre-Columbian and post-Columbian antiquities, the most valuable of which are included in the archaeological collection of Manuel S. Elgueta, while in art there are photographs, statuary, and wax-works, if the last can be said to belong to the domain of art.

In the western wing are illustrated the flora and fauna, the agricultural, horticultural, and mineral products of the country, so grouped as to convey a general idea of its resources. Here are maize, wheat, barley, beans, lentils, sesame, and other cereals, leguminous, and herbaceous plants. There are all the fruits of tropic and temperate climes, with spices, frankincense, oils, dyes, fibres both animal and vegetable, herbs both edible and medicinal, rubber, storax, tobacco, and a large assortment of cabinet woods. Coffee, the staple of Guatemala and forming the bulk of her exports, is largely represented; nor should we omit the samples of sugar and of Soconusco cocoa, the latter in demand wherever cocoa is used as a beverage. Of mineral products there is a valuable collection; for while mining receives but little attention, the country is by no means lacking in mineral wealth. Geological specimens are also numerous, and in map form are further illustrated the geological, as well as the topographical and hydrographical features of the republic.

In Costa Rica�s home at the Fair is housed a choice collection of exhibits from this enterprising and prosperous nation, the connecting link between the two Americas, and often styled the Yankees of Latin-America. Here is represented a region rich in resources, mineral and agricultural, with plant and forest growth of tropical luxuriance, the former of commercial value for manufacturing purposes and the latter for cabinet and construction timber. In educational matters Costa Rica is far in advance of her sister republics, supporting some 350 primary schools, in addition to high-schools, a university, and national and agricultural colleges, for the maintenance of which was voted in 1892 more than $500,000, or one tenth of the total appropriation. In other respects the country is no less progressive, having a large and increasing trade with Europe and the United States, with excellent postal and telegraph systems, and with railroad connection between the Atlantic and Pacific.

Situated on the eastern verge of the north lagoon, the building forms a neat and airy domicile, with a score of double casement windows and ten large skylights [914] on the roof. In the front a spacious piazza stands on the brink of the waters, and on each side is a portal flanked by Doric pilasters, above it the shield of the republic in bold relief. The iron frieze and cornices are of tasteful design; the outer surface is painted in effective colors, and the inner walls frescoed in suitable designs. The structure is partially surrounded with trees, their foliage masking the open doors and windows with a curtain of living green. The entire effect is that of a cool and cosey retreat, a pleasant resting place, but one where there is also much of interest, much that is novel and unfamiliar.

The interior forms a single room or hall, without partitions and with a gallery around its walls. The exhibits suggest a country rich in raw materials, most but not all of which can be manufactured to better advantage by older communities. Coffee and bananas are the staple exports of Costa Rica, and these are freely displayed, together with other products of the soil and sea. Of agricultural and vegetable specimens there are such as are raised in common with other countries, and there is one that is probably found in no other country. This is known as "vegetable ivory," almost as hard and white as tusk of narwhal, but nevertheless a seeding plant and one that is now being cultivated for manufacturing purposes. Of rubber there are many kinds; of medicinal plants a large variety, and among woods there are mahogany, as common almost in Costa Rica as the oak in Pennsylvania, and the cedron, whose surface when polished shows colors such as no painter can depict.

Of exhibits of metals and minerals there are gold, silver, nickel, copper, lead, iron, zinc, sulphur, and bismuth; these with clays, building stones, and earths of commercial value being widely distributed in Costa Rica and in paying deposits. Manufactures are shown for the most part in primary forms; but there are jewelry, hardware, and cabinet work of excellent quality, with intricate and ingenious designs in sea and tortoise shells. Of raw silk there are several cases and of textile fibres, both animal and vegetable, there is a liberal display, the latter, when passing into domestic use, being fashioned into the roughest of home-made clothing.

In the gallery are landscape and other paintings by prominent artists, with portraits of historic personages, the former representing mainly the scenic wonders of the cordilleras. Here also is a collection of birds, indigenous and some of them peculiar to Central America, as the kelzal, a large and beautiful species with brilliant plumage, but one that cannot live within a cage, and hence was adopted by Guatemala as one of the emblems impressed on her seal of state. There are also varieties of the canary, which in Costa Rica is plumed in yellow, black or white, and again in a mixture of all these colors. There are no live birds or beasts within the building, except for a cage of diminutive monkeys, with abnormal tufts of hair crowing their tiny and wrinkled foreheads. Finally there are ethnological and educational exhibits, the former consisting mainly of Indian relics and weapons.

Almost facing the Guatemala building is Columbia�s tiny home at the Fair, a white two-story edifice, dwarfed by the towering structures of Germany and Sweden. In style it is of the Italian renaissance, a domical glass roof rising abruptly from the centre surmounted by the national emblem, a condor with outstretched wings, on either side of which is a group of figures supporting a globe, and above this a flag-staff whence the national colors are displayed alternately with the stars and stripes. In the panels under the dome are inscribed the names of President Nunez and Vice-president Coro, with those of Bogota, the capital, and the nine political departments.

[915] - On the ground floor are small but interesting collections which speak of the history, products, and fauna of the country. From the graves of Indians, some of them representative of prehistoric times, come specimens of idols and images, pottery, wood-carvings, water bottles, helmets, trumpets, breastplates, necklaces, and bangles and anklets of gold. In wax statuettes are shown the features and physique of the natives, attired in garments fashioned by themselves, and there is at least one article which is proof of native skill in the line of fancy needlework. This is a silk-embroidered portrait of Director-general Davis, wrought in colors from a photograph taken by a female artist of the Quimbaya Indian tribe. Columbian coffee, especially such as is raised in the vicinity of Bogota, is prominently displayed, while cotton, another staple export, is exhibited in such manufactured forms as hammocks and clothing. There are also not a few specimens of gold; but more beautiful than all is the collection of moths and butterflies native to the country, and with all the rich hues which nature lavishes on the insect life of the tropics.

For Venezuela�s mansion was erected a one-story building of marble in three divisions, with Graeco-Roman facades and domical roofs, those above the wings being surmounted with statues of Columbus and Simon Bolivar. Within is sufficient evidence that the latter is held in esteem, not only in his native country but in Peru and elsewhere, as the hero of South American independence. A sword with 1,400 brilliants, a belt with three-score precious stones, a saddle cloth weighty with golden braid, and "El Sol de Peru," ablaze with diamonds, are all presents from the Peruvians, whose liberty he won in the campaign which ended at Pichincha in 1822. There are also the swords that he used in action and on one of the walls is the banner which Pizarro carried to conquest, presented nearly three centuries later to the national congress, by congress to the marischal de Ayacucho, and by the marischal to Bolivar. Finally there is a medallion portrait of Washington, a present from his family and handed to the deliverer of five republic by Lafayette, thus linking together the three central figures in the achievement of New World liberty.

The material riches of Venezuela are freely displayed in her classic pavilion, tastefully decorated in yellow, blue, and red, colors symbolic of the state. First among the raw products is coffee, of which 1,500,000 bags a year are exported or consumed. There are also silk, wool, cotton, and other fibres; native woods, including dye-woods; tonka beans and tobacco; oils, gums, and nuts. Of minerals there are asphaltum, petroleum, and cooper ore, the last from a mine which is said to be the second largest in the world. Of manufactures there are chocolates, starches, soaps, hammocks, basket-work, and leather in several forms, with saddles mounted in silver and embroidered in silk.

But the art collection is the feature in Venezuela�s pavilion; this, as I have said, being excluded from the general display, through tardy application for space, though belonging to the department of Fine Arts, and as such examined by the international board of judges. There are but twenty-five works in all, and with only six artists represented; their paintings grouped in the main hall around a central dais. First among them may be mentioned Cristobal Rojas� "Purgatory," a vigorous but grewsome composition, showing the souls of men and women writhing amid the flames, an angel hovering above with messages of peace which fall on ears that cannot hear. This work as is related cost the artist his life; for in order to give realism to his conception he studied daily for several hours the effect of the flames in Parisian smelting works, inhaling the poisonous atmosphere and thus inviting the attack of consumption which [917] ended his career. In all his works is a certain sadness of tone; for the genius of sadness possessed him, even at the time when he was sent as a student to Paris to complete his training at the expense of the Venezuelan government.

Arturo Michelina, who now stands at the head of the Venezuelan school, has several canvases showing his range and grasp of art. His portrait of Bolivar is the only one exhibited in the art chamber; but there are others elsewhere in the pavilion. In "Charlotte Corday Going to the Scaffold," the central figure is passing through the door of her cell, the eyes of a young artist following her with fixed and sorrowful gaze, while the jailer is carelessly lighting his pipe; for to him such scenes are of daily occurrence. "Penthesilea" is one of Michelina�s strongest works, and here the Amazon queen is represented not as Virgil describes her;

Penthesilea furens, lunatis agmina peltis,
Ducit Amazonidum.

She is wounded and some of her followers are bearing her from the field, while all around her the battle rages, and men and women lie prostrate dabbled in their blood. "Charity" is a most powerful study, and by many considered the best of Michelina�s canvases. A woman is lying on her death-bed, with a child at her side, and except for the pallet on which she rests, there is no article of furniture and not a morsel of food in this home of poverty and woe. A lady and a little girl are entering the room with relief that comes too late, and the look in the eyes of the dying woman is one that they will never forget.

The Brazilian building is the most ornate of the South American pavilions, one in which the artificer has given full rein to his fancy; for by the Exposition management there were no restrictions as to the designs of state or foreign structures; only that they must be attractive and in harmony with the general plan. In style it is of the French renaissance, nearly 150 feet square, and surmounted by a dome 120 feet in height from floor to finial, around which are campaniles, each with an open observatory. On each face are columns of the Corinthian order, and on the facades and the stylobate of the dome are Indian and other figures symbolical of the republic. The ground floor is almost without partitions and devoted mainly to the exhibit of coffee. On the upper floor the assembly room is handsomely draped and furnished; in its centre a group of palms and ferns, above which is a figure of Mercury. There are also ladies� reception parlors, and in rear of the building is an annex where by native waiters is served such coffee as nowhere else can be had; for as the Brazilians claim, the art of roasting the berry and preparing the beverage is unknown in the United States.

In the central hall are more than 2,000 specimens of the 370,000 tons of coffee yearly produced in Brazil, or about two thirds of the world�s supply, one half of it coming from the state of St. Paulo. The samples are ranged in glass jars grouped on tables or in pyramidal form, and represent the greatest of Brazilian industries; for nearly all the coffee sold as of the Mocha or Java varieties comes from the southern republic, whose choicer products are not inferior to either.

In addition to the Brazilian collection in the palace of Fine Arts there is one of equal merit in the government building, including Pedro Americo�s famous painting of the "Proclamation of Brazilian Independence" by the emperor in 1822. "Tiradentes," by Aurelio de Figuerdo, represents the execution of this proto-martyr of Brazil. Antonio Parreiras has three canvases, one of which is a "Panorama of the City of Nictheroy." Insley Pacheco has a number of landscape views, most of them from the neighborhood of Rio Janeiro, whose harbor is the most picturesque in the world. Among portraits is one of General Deodoro by Henrique Bernardelli, [918] and by Girardet is a medallion of Benjamin Constant, leader of the revolution by which Dom Pedro was deposed.

The Japanese commissioners erected as their headquarters a small structure near the northern extremity of the wooded island, where it is partially concealed by trees and shrubbery. In the vicinity is the temple of Phoenix, called Hooden in honor of the mythical bird of Japan, and in part a reproduction of the historic edifice of that name built more than eight centuries ago at Uji, the original of which is still in a fair state of preservation. It is of two stories, with a wing at either side and a corridor at the back; its design prepared by the government architect of Japan, the interior decorations supplied by the Tokyo academy, and the furniture and works of art by the Imperial museum. In the architectural scheme are illustrated three historic epochs. The main hall represents the style of the Tokugawa period, dating back a century and a half, reproducing the sitting-room of one of the great lords of these days. The south wing is planned as in the Ashikaga era of the fifteenth century, and the north wing after the golden or Tujiwara era of 850 years ago. Native woods form the body of the temple, its roof being covered with sheets of copper. The ceilings of the main hall are divided into panels of lacquered wood, those of the two side rooms being elaborately decorated with phoenixes in gold and colors, with similar figures on the walls and sliding doors.

Near the German building Hayti erected a model pavilion of the southern colonial style; with broad piazzas on three of its sides and surmounted by a central cupola, from the flagstaff of which is displayed the national standard in horizontal stripes of red and blue. Above the main portico is the coat-of-arms, and below it, in gilt letters, the words Republique Haitienne, with the figures 1492, 1892, and 1804, the last referring to the acquisition of independence. Of the interior space a large portion is occupied by a central hall, draped with festoons of colors, and in the centre a statue of "Reverie" by a native artist. Relics are freely displayed; among them the rapier of Toussaint L�Ouverture, while others refer to the Columbian era and to the aboriginal inhabitants, including one of the anchors lost from Columbus� flag-ship in 1493, the other being placed at the entrance to the convent of La Rabida. There are also portraits and busts of prominent men, as of the Haytian liberator, of the first president of the republic and of Frederick Douglass.

All that Hayti has contributed to the Fair is contained within her pavilion, where first of all are native woods, some polished and others in their natural state, the most massive specimen being a huge block of mahogany. There are also minerals, and various articles of manufacture, especially in leather, including some highly finished saddlery. Coffee is a feature in the display, and of this there are some two-score varieties, the beverage itself being served in an apartment in rear of the hall. Of sugar there are numerous samples, these with syrups, liquors, liqueurs, and a few other articles completing the Haytian exhibits.

World�s Fair Miscellany - The French colonies are represented at the Fair by several buildings, among which may be mentioned those of Tonkin, Tunis, and Algeria. The first is identical with that which was erected for the Paris Exposition of 1889. It is a rectangular structure, its interior partially finished in walnut, with stained glass windows, and is covered with Chinese hieroglyphics, some of which date back to the days of Confucius.

In connection with England�s participation in the Fair may be mentioned the White Horse Inn, a reproduction of a famous hostlery at Ipswich, where excellent meals and the choicest of liquors were served at somewhat extravagant prices. But to many the main attraction was the barmaids brought from England for the occasion. All were of the better class, never indulging in flirtation, and serving their tankards of ale or glasses of mulled port or claret, in the making of which they were [919] specially skilled, with strict attention to business. They were well-favored lasses enough, bright-eyed, buxom, and trig; each with light auburn hair, for this was a necessary qualification, and in neat but orthodox attire, with bib and apron of spotless white.

James Shanks, lord-mayor of Dublin with his wife and party, among whom were two Irish members of parliament, arrived in Chicago on the 25th of September and met with a cordial welcome, being entertained as guests of the city and the World�s Fair directory. Before the celebration of Irish day, in which he was the central figure, the mayor paid several visits to the Exposition, and on the 28th was invited with his party to a luncheon given by Sir Richard E. Webster, chairman of the royal commission, and Sir Henry Trueman Wood, its secretary. In the afternoon they attended a reception at Lady Aberdeen�s village, tendered by Mrs. Peter White, its manager. At night the mayor and several of his party were feasted by the city council. There were flowers in profusion, with music by Tomaso�s mandolin orchestra, and the choicest of viands and liquors, among them "punch a la Shanks,� of which his lordship doubtless partook. There was also speech-making, of course, but not enough of it to mar the feast. Other banquets and receptions were given by Sir Richard, who was appointed attorney-general during the first of Salisbury�s terms, and is the youngest man who ever held that position. He is a gifted orator, and except perhaps for Sir Charles Russell, none stand higher in the profession, whose members say that it is almost impossible to draw up a document or prepare a case in which he cannot find a serious flaw. This the American advocates found to their cost during the sittings of the Bering Sea commission; for while all were able lawyers, they were no match for the ex-attorney general. Of the Fair Sir Richard remarked; "The architecture is simply marvellous in its beauty and the vista down the lagoons and the effect of the buildings from the water is beyond description. Surpassing even the dreams of oriental dreamers is the effect in its entirety of this wonderful Exposition."

The 12th of August was Bohemia�s day at the Fair, and an important occasion it was; for, as stated by Lieutenant-governor Jonas of Wisconsin, the orator of the day, the Bohemian population of Chicago is greater than that of any city in the world, with the exception of Prague. At the exercises in Festival hall he said it was eminently fitting that such a day should have been named by the management, as the exposition of the industries and arts of Bohemia held at Prague in 1791 was the first of the kind in history. Antonin Dvorak, the famous composer, was leader of the orchestra, and received an ovation from the thousands of his countrymen who were present. The Bohemian societies gave an exhibition of athletics in the Live-stock pavilion, in which the participants were of both sexes.

August 31st, the thirteenth birthday of Wilhelmina, queen of the Netherlands, was a feature among the foreign celebrations. Exercises at Festival hall inaugurated the day, the chairman being George Birkhoff, commissioner-general and consul. After speeches, varied with music, the assemblage adjourned to the Javanese village, which was closed to all but the Dutch and their descendants. Here they were entertained by native dancers and musicians, drank coffee, and enjoyed themselves to their hearts� content.

On Mexican day, the 4th of October, the celebration was warmly supported by the Exposition management; for Mexico was among the first of the nations to respond to their invitations to take part in the Fair. Miguel Serrano, commissioner-general rang the liberty bell; Commissioner McDonald of California welcomed the Mexicans, and after music by one of their most famous military bands President Palmer welcomed them again. In the recital and music halls Mexican shields and flags were profusely displayed, together with the stars and stripes, while bronze busts of Hidalgo, President Diaz, and Washington were objects which spoke of the friendly relations between the two republics.

Guatemala�s inaugural day, the 3rd day of July, was celebrated with simple but impressive ceremonies, attended by many of the foreign commissioners and the leading officials of the Fair. Two days later the Costa Rica and Venezuela buildings were formally opened. At the former there were no special exercises, M. M. Paralta, as United States minister, welcoming his guest in brief and courteous phrase. Consul-general [920] Saldivia spoke on behalf of Venezuela, Francisco E. Bustamaule, his associate commissioner and minister at Washington, accepting the building on behalf of his government. Costa Rica�s celebration was held on the 15th of September, the day on which Central America declared her independence in 1821. There was a reception in the state pavilion, attended by many of the foreign commissioners and Fair officials, including the Board of Lady Managers.

Columbia dedicated her home on the 20th of July, the 83d anniversary of her independence or rather of its declaration; for freedom was only purchased after a cruel and protracted war. As head of the commission, Parlos Silva delivered the principal address, the sons of President Nunez being among his audience. Brazil opened house on the 19th of July, and held celebration on the 7th of September, on which day of 1822 Dom Pedro I, governor of what was then a Portuguese colony, receiving word from his father, the king, that the liberties of the country were to be curtailed, proclaimed its independence. On the former occasion the only speech was by Lemos Basto, president of the republic. On the latter there was no speech making; merely a concert in the music hall, followed by a reception in the government building, Rear-Admiral Maurity being president of the commission.

On a plat of ground sloping gently to the banks of the lagoon, between the Brazilian and the Fisheries buildings, are two small structures of wood and bamboo enclosed by a low, light fence. Here is the Japanese tea house; its floors covered with matting, cushions, and arm-rests, for the accommodation of those who would partake of the beverage as prepared and served by native attendants.

Of the many banquets tendered by foreign commissioners none exceeded in luxury, taste, and hospitality the one given by Japanese commissioners, Tegima and Matsudaira. For the occasion the banqueting hall of the Auditorium building was ornamented with the flags and shields of all nations, prominent among which was the banner of Japan, with its disk of red on a field of white. The balcony was draped in crimson velvet, and on a line with the columns which supported it was an array of wonderfully decorated vases, filled with lilies and begonias. On the tables were smaller vases containing flowers of every hue; elsewhere rosebushes and orange-trees were disposed at intervals, with a background of palms and laurels. The guests were welcomed by Tegima, who called attention to the Japanese Exposition to be held in Kyoto in 1895, commemorating the 1,100th anniversary of its selection as the national capital. In response, Thomas B. Bryan, as chairman, spoke of the generous part which Japan had played in the affairs of the Columbian Exposition.

Hayti dedicated her building on the 2d of January, the 19th anniversary of her independence, Frederick Douglass, one of the commissioners, with Charles A. Preston as associate, delivering the opening address, to which Director-general Davis responded. A special fete day was appointed for the 16th of August, when there was a reception in the state pavilion, followed by a banquet at the Richelieu hotel.

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