The Book of the Fair,
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THE BOOK OF THE FAIR: Chapter the Twentieth:
Anthropology and Ethnology
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[629] Least pretentious among the structures of the Fair in which are housed its main exhibits is the Anthropological building, where is presented a record in miniature of man�s condition, progress and achievement, from prehistoric eras to the days in which we live. In this department are several divisions and many sub-divisions, first among which are archaeology and ethnology, with their various branches. In the former section, beginning with the stone age, are shown portions of human skeletons and specimens of handiwork unearthed from geologic strata, from mounds and shell heaps, from caves and burial places, from the ruins of ancient cities and pueblos, and in a word from every portion of the New World where its ancient races have left their impress. From the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi, and elsewhere to the borders of either ocean, from Mexico and Central and South America have been unearthed, after the lapse of unnumbered aions, their buried implements of stone, iron, or copper, their household utensils and ornaments, and whatever else may serve to throw light on the paleolithic and other prehistoric periods. Some of the exhibits are arranged in geographical groupings, as the models of cliff dwellings from Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, and of the sculptured ruins of Copan.

For those who incline to this field of investigation, a section is devoted to physical anthropology. Here, in the skulls, charts, diagrams, and models gathered from many nations, may be compared the past and present types of the human race. There are the skulls of the ancient Greek, Italian, [630] German, and Helvetian; there are the skulls of savages and apes; there are casts of faces typical of tribes and nationalities; there are diagrams showing the comparative stature and anatomical measurement of men and women in various countries, with photographs, statues, and other appliances for a thorough study of this important branch of science. Elsewhere by similar agencies are illustrated the functions and activities of the brain and the organs of sense, whether in normal or in unhealthy condition. In the case of children there are also apparatus for an experimental study of mental phenomena, the subjects being chosen from those who would submit themselves to certain tests while visiting this department of the Fair.

A special and most interesting section has for its subjects primitive religions, folk-lore, and games, the last being grouped together so as to form a comparative study. But it is on the exhibits relating to the condition and progress of man that the interest mainly centres, and especially on such as pertain to modern man; for from the relics of the buried past, whose history at best is largely diluted with speculation, we turn with a sense of relief to more practical evidences of his achievements as contained in written or printed page. Thus is has been the prime object of the ethnological display to afford an opportunity for the study of national types, not only from a scientific point of view, but as far as possible through living specimens. To this end a strong background has been obtained by placing before the spectator the representatives of races existing on this continent in the days of the Columbian era. Then are illustrated special epochs and events, with portraits and busts of those of whose lives and achievements our history largely consists, but without allusion to the annals of the civil war, a theme entirely out of place in an exposition devoted to the arts of peace.

But the exhibits of this department, and especially its historical exhibits, are not restricted to the Anthropological building. In the convent of La Rabida is a collection relating especially to the Columbian epoch, under the special charge of William E. Curtis, of the Latin-American bureau. In the Government edifice is a large gallery of paintings, photographs, and other illustrations pertaining to the Latin-American republics. In a model Indian school are the representatives of many native tribes, gathered almost from the shores of the Arctic ocean to the gulf of Mexico. Here is the civilized Indian at his task of making blankets, baskets, pottery, or at the more welcome task of eating and drinking, or playing with his children and his dogs. [631] Here also are specimens from farm and workshop, representing the industries of the nation�s proteges, while in other departments are tribal exhibits, each one carefully arranged and credited, and not a few of them competing for awards. To this division also belong in part the state collections and the Midway plaisance, in both of which are ethnological features.

Additional attractions in this department are exhibits in natural history and taxidermy from several of the states, from the Canadian province of Ontario, and from Brazil, including valuable collections from Ward�s Natural Science establishment at Rochester and from the Agassiz association at St. Louis. There are not restricted to the hall of Anthropology, the Kansas State Building, for instance, containing the best specimens of taxidermy displayed in the Exposition and one of the best in the world.

The general plan, however, is to illustrate in a series of object lessons the development of various phases and adjuncts of civilization, as architecture, household conveniences, appliances and methods for the saving of life and labor, for the discipline and reform of criminals, for the cure of the sick, and the relief of those who are in need. Sanitation and hygiene, charities and corrections, properly belonging to the department of Liberal Arts, find expression in the Anthropological building. In apparatus, models, plans, photographs, and literature are shown the progress and condition of sanitary science as applied to dwellings, workshops, stores, and public buildings. Here are displayed the best systems of heating, ventilation, and drainage; the precautions used to prevent and check infectious diseases, and to minimize the danger to health incidental to certain trades. Another branch is athletic training in various forms, and still another is the adulteration of food, with the proper means for its detection. In connection with charities, asylums and homes for all classes of the unfortunate or inform are compared in their several sections.

Over the main northern entrance of the Anthropological building, in the southeastern extremity of the grounds, is the inscription, "Man and His Works," thus briefly and aptly explaining the purposes of the display. A floor space of more than 100,000 square feet is mainly occupied by the archaeological and ethnological exhibits of foreign countries and of state boards and individuals, together with the collections gathered from various parts of North and South America by a corps of [633] assistants under the direction of F. W. Putnam, as chief of this department. In the northern portion some 30,000 square feet are set apart for the bureaus of hygiene and sanitation, of charities and correction.

Passing through the northern portal, the visitor observes a few small collections illustrating certain points in the antiquities and ancient arts of Assyria, Egypt, and Rome; then proceeding down the main aisle, he finds at its central point the government exhibits of Greece, supplemented by contributions from the Chicago museum of art. These are for the most part reproductions of the most famous of Grecian sculptures and statuary, exhumed from the mausoleums and ruins of Mycenae and Delos, of Boeotia, Attica, and Thessaly. Among them are statues of Diana, Apollo, and Victory, with allegorical groups representing various subjects. Of special interest are the replicas of two statuettes of Minerva, executed by Phidias in ivory and gold, with figures of Mercury, one of which is a cast of what is said to be the only authenticated work from the hands of Praxiteles. Here also are represented colossal statues or fragments of Arcadian origin, once forming a portion of a group in the temple of Proserpine. Among sculptures of the fifth and fourth centuries of the pre-Christian era are bas-reliefs from the acropolis and figures from Arcadian and Olympian temples; but most ancient of all, and perhaps the oldest specimen extant, is a relief from the Lion gate at Mycenae. Belonging to later periods are the colossal statues of Justice and Neptune, from originals discovered in the island of Melos. Finally there are busts of the emperor Hadrian and his favorite, Antinous, with figures or heads of Hermes and Pan, of Minerva and Medusa, of Athenian youths and dancing women.

Beyond the Grecian section are other collections relating to European archaeology, including those from the government museum at Vienna. A Moravian contributor shows the skull and bones of a monster bear, a [634] cave-dweller of prehistoric times. In this vicinity is also a valuable display of Egyptian antiquities from Albany, with one from the imperial museum of Japan, containing relics of the earlier ages of its island empire.

Mexico occupies a large area adjacent to that of Japan, reproducing not only her ancient ruins but the historic structures described by Spanish chroniclers as existing at the time of the conquest. From the Federal district comes a model of ancient Mexico, with specimens of Aztec furniture, and from various states, from the scientific institute at Toluca, from the Mexican Central railway, and many private exhibitors are other contributions which fill this large and well arranged section. Models of rural homes familiar to travelers in that country are side by side with musical instruments, household utensils, pipes, cloaks made of bark, and other apparel worn by native Indians. Aztec lances, battle-axes, shields, and war drums are massed in one corner, and not far away is a group of stone heads and idols, with ancient coins, copies of antique manuscripts, water color paintings of antiquities, human skulls and jawbones, casts of inscriptions on stone, and models, photographs, albums, and books illustrating past and present types of Mexico�s native races. The Mexican Central sends an interesting collection of coins, pieces of obsidian, and plaster casts of Aztec calendars, and elsewhere are charts showing the ancient system of recording time, with painted shields of Aztec warriors and a copy of Mexico�s earliest map.

On the opposite side of the main aisle Ohio, Indiana, Missouri, Wisconsin, Colorado, and the Canadian province of Ontario, most of the former through their historical societies, and the latter as a government display, have large collections of pottery, implements, and weapons pertaining to prehistoric tribes. There are supplemented by private contributions, forming together a most interesting study in archaeology. Colorado, for instance, thus describes in part the history of her ancient cliff dwellers, and so with Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. There are pottery and stone implements from the great shell heaps of Florida and Main, while Michigan, Illinois, and Missouri contribute from their valleys and ancient village sites utensils not only of stone but of copper. Other relics are from the mounds of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Arkansas, from Connecticut, and especially from the valley of the Delaware, whence the collection was made by an agent of the Anthropological department. Several experts were also despatched to the valleys of the two Miamis, the Muskingum, Scioto, and other tributaries of the Ohio, around which cluster so many of the mysterious mounds supposed to [635] be remnants of fortresses and burial grounds, among which are records of animal symbols, or totems, adopted by family or tribe. The famous Serpent mound, over 1,200 feet in length, is here in miniature relief, displaying what archaeologists believe to be an egg, symbolic of the creation of the world. Reconstructed on a small scale are also the Turner and Hopewell groups of mounds, the latter, more than a score in number, built on a terrace, with another elevated surface bordering the creek near by, and a third not far away, where careful exploration disclosed many pieces of copper, fashioned into various geometric figures, into ornaments, and forms of bird, fish, and beast. Implements of copper, mysterious crosses of the same metal, shells, bears� claws, sharks� teeth, mica, carved bone ornaments, spear and arrow heads, and thousands of flint chippings are among the articles taken from the Hopewell farm and exhibited in this department. In connection with illustrations of prehistoric life pertaining to Ohio may also be mentioned the survey maps of Fort Ancient, and those of the Marietta earthworks and other well known localities.

After Ohio, the state of Wisconsin, through its historical society, presents the most interesting study for those who would further investigate the much disputed question of the mound builders. Here the mounds are chiefly located in the valleys of the Fox, the Wisconsin, and other prominent waterways, clustering most thickly around the larger cities of the present day. In other sections are numerous heaps of earth such as have already been described; but while these forms are also very numerous in Wisconsin, the so-called effigy mounds, in which is depicted the human figure, are believed to be peculiar to that state. Therefore it is that the tablets in this collecting, showing the model and outlines of a group of effigy mounds, are considered of special value by the department.

From the neighboring state of Minnesota has been forwarded by a private contributor a section of her pipestone quarries, long considered the main source of supply for the making of the calument, or pipe of peace, with which is connected much of the semi-religious aspect in the Indian mythology of the west. Among private exhibits relating to archaeology mention should also be made of a collection from Frank G. Logan, of Chicago, purchases from H. N. Rust, of Pasadena, whose days have been passed in archaeological researches extending from New Hampshire to California. There are in all some 3,000 specimens, among them the flat stones worn by prehistoric man into cup-like grooves, while crushing bones or grain, with stone hammers, axes, and rude implements for tilling the soil. From California the relics include a portable mortar, the upper part of which is of wicker work and the bottom, a stone; cooking vessels of stone and clay; stone lamps, with pieces of bark for wicks; stone rings utilized as sinkers for fish nets, as mallet heads, or as weapons; stone tubes employed by medicine men for cupping processes, and pieces of obsidian from the Klamath Indians and the ancient Aztecs, by the former used as ornaments and indications of rank, and by the priests of the latter for killing their sacrificial victims. In the Aztec groups are also polished stone work and neatly fashioned urns in which were placed the ashes of the dead.

In other sections, separated by the width of the hall, are interesting and valuable collections gathered by the agents of the department from Honduras and Yucatan, from Columbia, Bolivia, Peru, and other points [636] in South America and the West Indies. As reproductions of the famous sculptures of Central America, the French minister of public instruction has furnished imposing casts, covered with strange figures and hieroglyphics, from moulds taken by Desire Charnay. Other contributions are from the Berlin museum, the government of Honduras, and the Peabody museum of American archaeology. For those who care not for these strange weird forms and faces, there is a gallery of forty large photographs, representing the exhibits of Great Britain and the achievements of one of her explorers, whose views were taken from the ancient structures of Guatemala, Honduras, Chiapas, and Yucatan.

More imposing and complete than anything within the building, however, are the reproductions of the Yucatan ruins displayed, as I have said, outside its walls. The explorations were made by E. H. Thompson, United States consul and an agent of the Exposition, his moulds consisting of the portal from the central structure of the group of ruins at Labna, the facade of the Serpent house, and three sections of the house of Nuns, the last from the ruins of Uxmal.

Returning to the Anthropological building, its most uncanny collection is from the ancient land of Peru, whence is a substantial reproduction of a burying ground at Ancon. There are ridges of gravel and sandy soil, with mummies in all positions, and skulls, bones, and cloth interspersed. The preservation of the bodies is largely due to the almost total absence of rain in the locality whence they were taken, and to the saltpetre and other preservative elements contained in the soil. There are more than 100 bodies, including those of many personages of note, one with colored standards and war club beside him, others swathed in richly colored blankets or cotton cloth, and all with jars of provisions beside them, so that they hunger not on their way to the hereafter. Some of the bodies are tattooed, and adorned with beads and copper earrings, while on tablets fashioned of cloth, stretched upon frames of wood and painted with figures and characters, are described the virtues of the deceased. The latter, together with the clothing and other articles taken from the graves, are wonderfully preserved, even to parrots� feathers found on the heads of warriors. As Ancon was a fishing town, many nets were unearthed from its sepulchres, and these are almost intact, as are the baskets of woven fibre representing the industries of women.

The agent who explored this famous necropolis of Peru, also visited [637] portions of Chile, Bolivia, and Ecuador, in the interests of American archaeology. It was from the island of La Plata, off the coast of Ecuador, that he collected the rarest of the relics aside from those gathered form the burial ground of Ancon. The former was virgin soil for the archaeologist, and with the cooperation of the government, he was enabled to exhume not only the bodies of the dead, but finely wrought pottery and beautiful finished cups, jewelry, and idols of gold. Slabs of the precious metal were also discovered, from which these works of art were fashioned. A large area was covered with a stratum of ashes several feet in thickness, which appeared to separate other relics from those of finer workmanship. The investigators concluded that they had found a large cemetery where the dead were burned, and that the stratum was the dividing line either between two peoples or two grades of civilization, the utensils and ornaments plainly indicating different degrees of skill and culture. In this connection may also be mentioned the large collection of pottery, wooden vessels, ornaments, implements, and various articles of gold, silver, copper, and stone, gathered near the city of Cuzco, Peru, and relating to periods when this locality was the centre of governmental and priestly power. Here was the great Peruvian temple of the Sun, whose ruins are still imposing.

In another portion of the hall, near the casts of Central American sculpture, is a group of picturesque exhibits from Brazil, British Guiana, Costa Rica, and Paraquay. In character they partake both of the archaeological and ethnological. For example, in the Brazilian section the national museum and the museum of Para contribute ancient pottery; urns containing the ashes of the dead; carved images of hideous aspect representing the heathen gods before the advent of Christianity; huge clubs, bows and arrows, blow-guns, and other weapons; painted images of religious import, and household utensils made by Indian tribes of the present day. Here also is a number of pictures, a large oil portrait representing a South American native, his black body gleaming like ebony, his black hair adorned with bright-colored feathers, and his neck encircled with a necklace of teeth taken from the jaws of wild animals, while from his feathered breech-cloth hangs a quiver of arrows, the long bow which he seems able to wield to good effect lying by his side. From Costa Rica come pottery, implements, ornaments, utensils, and weapons gathered from ancient graves, large maps hung upon the walls of her section indicating the most important districts from an archaeological point of view, and large paintings illustrating the appearance and customs of the natives.

But one of the most complete collections of curios relating to the South American Indian of today is that which resulted from the expedition of Lieutenant Roger Welles to the upper waters of the Orinoco river. The lieutenant acted as an agent of the department, and his display consists of reed blow-guns, some of them ten feet in length; spears, large bows, and poisoned arrows with fish-bone tips; reeds bound together to form a single instrument; glazed pottery simply but tastefully ornamented; tinder boxes made of bamboo or bone; baskets, combs, boards into which flints are set for grating cassava roots, and hammocks made of the fibre of a native palm; implements used in extracting india rubber; feather head-dresses and costumes; strings of monkeys� teeth, and other articles illustrating the domestic, industrial, and warlike phases of aboriginal life. Finally there is a number of articles from the Caribs of the West Indies, the fiercest of the tribes with which Columbus had to deal.

Among the ancient enemies of the Caribs, it is said that the Arawaks were the most powerful, often repelling the incursions of the former upon the mainland. One of the most notable of the ethnological specimens [638] is a full-blooded native of the latter tribe, brought from his forest home to assist the British commissioner in his arrangement of the Guiana section. This exhibit, one of the most picturesque in the department, is grouped in and around two huts, one such as serves for habitation the Indians of the forest, and the other those of the coast. There are hammocks of various kinds, plain and ornamented; benches of wood and tortoise-shell; tinder boxes, and the more primitive fire sticks. Elsewhere are tobacco leaves; cigarette paper made of vegetable ropes for making hammocks, and spindles and frames employed in their manufacture. In the line of dress and ornaments are various styles of aprons worn by the women, fashioned of bark, cotton, and beads, with cotton anklets and waist belts, plan and adorned with fringes or pendants. Teeth of jaguar and peccary are made into necklaces, and there is nose jewelry of silver and tin. Feathers of brilliant hue are used for head-dresses or girdles for the arms and shoulder; a fish spine serves as a tattooing implement, and there are dyes of red, yellow, and white for staining the face and body.

Native warrior and sportsman are represented by war-clubs, bows and arrows, blow-pipes, fish-traps and nets, and hunting bags of skin and wicker work. The arrows are of many kinds; those for killing birds, with bamboo points; for stunning them with blunt heads; for shooting fish, metal heads; for large game, metal spear heads; for turtles, separable metal heads; and poisoned arrows for game, with bamboo point and cap. Domestic life is represented in a collection of jars, jugs, gourds, and baskets; corn mortars and pestles and sugar cane crushers; graters, pressers, and baskets for the preparation of cassava; hollowed trunks for festive drinks with paddles for stirring them, and mats for protection against stinging ants and the coercion of unruly children. Wrestling shields, dancing sticks, rattles, trumpets, flutes, an Aeolian harp made from the stalk of a palm, and a headdress of leaves point to sport, music, and the dance. The environment of the native tribes is further illustrated by cabinets of birds, fishes, and animals used for food, and a collection of photographs showing the country which they inhabit.

Thus it will be seen that the native races, both past and present, of what is known as Latin-America are fully represented in the Anthropological department. A collection yet to be mentioned is that of Emil Hassler, the Paraguayan commissioner, one pertaining to the customs not only of the native tribes of his own country, but of more than forty others, scattered over the central portions of South America. This collection, the result of many years of labor, was the only [639] exhibit from South American countries for which a gold medal was awarded at the Paris exposition of 1889. The tribes from which it was gathered were sparsely scattered over the territory occupied by the Tupi-Guaranis family during the Jesuit occupation, and here is nothing in the way of idols, all traces of idol worship being destroyed during the seventeenth century. The collection consists for the most part of weapons, utensils, and articles of rude manufacture. Among the first are spears whose points are made of wood, stone, bone, and iron; stone axes, and bows from which stones instead of arrows are shot. There are also primitive machines for spinning cotton threads, and a shawl of cotton, made entirely by hand; shells, teeth, hammocks, straw hats, pottery, boat and oars, fishing implements, bone knives, lip perforators, wooden ear-plugs and ornaments for the head, which are composed mainly of feathers.

In the western quarter of the Anthropological building a considerable space is devoted to the large and interesting government exhibit from New South Wales, and to the collections from New Zealand, New Caledonia, and other islands of the South Pacific. They are mainly composed of weapons, implements, ornaments, and costumes, arranged in striking designs upon the walls of the various sections, supplemented by hideous idols from the New Hebrides and Solomon groups, and by paintings of typical natives, some of them hardly less repulsive. There is, however, a reverse side of aboriginal life, furnished chiefly by the board for the protection of the aborigines of New South Wales, whose headquarters are at Sydney. From the children of the school established by this board are specimens of handwriting and needlework, with drawings executed by a famous chief of the Ulladulla tribe, dealing principally with hunting and fishing scenes. The assortment of Polynesian curios is further enriched by contributions from the royal museum of Vienna, and by those of private individuals, among which is one from New Caledonia, while from New Zealand are implements, ornaments, and cloth of Maori manufacture.

In this vicinity also are the fetishes of central and western Africa, with the musical instruments, household utensils, ornaments, and weapons peculiar to the dark continent. On one of the walls is a group of weapons from the basin of the Congo, and the warlike Zulus furnish an interesting collection of arms, scepters, and royal insignia, with ornaments of silver, ivory, and horn. Not far away is a group of Chinese idols and other objects referring to oriental religions, with a special display illustrative of the life and customs of the Chinese in the United States. Then come private exhibits, including baskets, bead-work, ornaments, and costumes of North American Indians. For those who wish further to investigate this subject there is a gallery of pictures, mainly by George Catlin, relating to aboriginal life in America, and showing not only types of leading tribes but chiefs prominent in the history of [640] Indian warfare. The Wisconsin Historical society sends an interesting exhibit of garments, utensils, and other articles bearing upon the customs of such noted tribes as the Chippewas and Winnebagoes, while a Washington contributor, who for a decade has been investigating the subject of Indian music among the tribes of the west, displays the results of her work, especially among the Nez Perces, Omahas, and Winnebagoes.

In this exposition of the life of North American Indians, however, the tribes of the far northwest furnish most of the ethnological material. Alaska and British Columbia are especially rich in this respect, and to these regions the department sent many agents, as well as to Labrador, Greenland, and other habitats of the Eskimos. Thus may be gleaned something of the peculiarities of a race which seems to be a connecting link between the old world and the new. From Alaska are pipes and other articles carved in wood and ivory, with masks and head-gear such as are used by the priests, or shamans of Siberia. There are also carved bowls; wooden chests and boxes inlaid with ivory, bone, and shell; horn ladles, dishes, and spoons; fish-knives and curious hooks; fire sticks and tinder boxes, surgical knives and a multitude of other articles among which are pictures of considerable merit. But perhaps the most interesting of all is the model of the Indian village of Skidegate, on one of the Queen Charlotte islands, off the coast of British Columbia. Worthy of special note [641] are the carved posts, fashioned by the Haidas into shapes of beast, bird, and man, representing either some symbol which has been adopted or some myth handed down through the ages. Within the building both totem poles and structures are much reduced in size; but on the shores of the pond near by are exact reproductions of the originals.

Extending across the southern portion of the building is a double row of cases which mark the dividing line between the departments already described and those that relate to sanitary and reformatory measures. Grouped among the latter is material illustrative of the folk-lore, traditions, and customs of many races; but here the field is so vast that the collection has been practically restricted to the subject of games, and even in this regard it is remarkable how much mankind has in common. The basis of the collection was formed in the museum of archaeology in the University of Pennsylvania, and this has been supplemented by exhibits from individuals and the leading manufactures of appliances for games in the United States.

As the games are classified and arranged for comparative study, the puzzles and simple apparatus for children commence the series. Ancient puzzles from East India and China are seen in many familiar forms, those from the latter usually made of wood, bone, or ivory. Simpler still are the counting-out rhymes of children, contained in book form and common to many countries. Here the boy with his first top, which represents to him a new form of plaything, finds in one of these cases a wood object not unlike his own treasure, discovered in Egypt and dating about 2,800 B.C. From the burial grounds of Ancon, Peru, similar objects were unearthed. The Sioux of North America made for their children, in primitive times, balls of stone and baked clay, which were spun on the ice like whip tops. Later, they fashioned them of wood, adding pegs of brass. Pop-guns and squirt-guns, it is found, have amused the children of the native tribes of East India and the aborigines of North and South America, while jackstraws, under different names, have been used in China, England, and France since time immemorial.

Games of ball were common in Egypt long before the reign of the Pharoahs, the most ancient specimens of implements being a stick and small block of wood which served for this purpose more than 4,600 years ago. They were also a favorite pastime in Turkey, in Asia, Persia, India, China, and Japan, spreading thence to Europe and the western hemisphere. All the appliances are here displayed, together with the wicker baskets and flat bat used in Spanish ball games, while a Chicago house has an exhibit of the articles employed in games of cricket, baseball, football, golf, polo, la crosse, lawn-tennis, racket and shuttlecock, with Japanese and Chinese forms of the last named. Ring games of various kinds are illustrated, and a collection of large Burmese seeds and the knuckle bones of Turkish sheep, weighted with lead, are among primitive forms of marble playing, other implements being shown as in use today. To illustrate the comparatively modern games of bowls, billiards, and croquet, a Chicago company shows apparatus and miniature models of [643] remarkable beauty and finish, while another interesting collection is from the Chicago curling club. Adjoining is a case in which are gathered from China, Korea, Japan, Siam, Egypt, Morocco, Peru, and New Mexico, the boards and pieces for games resembling chess and draughts. The boards used in the Japanese and Peruvian games of fox and geese are almost identical, and as these were unknown in either country until the sixteenth century, it is inferred that they were of Spanish origin. Perhaps the most interesting form among this class of games is furnished by the Zuni Indians of New Mexico, the board upon which it is played being divided into 140 squares, each of which is crossed by two intersecting diagonal lines. Says Stewart Culin, in charge of the folk-lore department: "The moves are made one square at a time along these diagonal lines, the pieces being placed at the angles of the squares. Two or four persons play. They each start with six men, and their object is to get their men across to the other side and occupy their opponent�s places, capturing as many of his pieces as possible by the way. A piece is taken by getting it between two others, as in the modern Egyptian game of seega, and the first piece thus taken may be replaced by an extra one belonging to the player who makes the capture, which may move on the straight as well as the diagonal lines and is called the priest of the bow. This game, which is arranged and is exhibited by Frank Hamilton Cushing, is called A-roi-thlak-na-kwe, which he translates as �stone warriors.� Edward Falkener in his work entitled, Games Ancient and Oriental, which he lent for exhibition here, has published a restoration of the ancient Egyptian game of [644] senat from fragments of Egyptian boards which have come down from 1600 B.C. The game as thus restored is in some respects similar to the Zuni game, the men being taken as in seega by getting them between two others. The Zuni game, however, may be regarded as in advance of any other board game even of our own civilization, until we come to the true game of chess.

"Chess stands alone among games. We do not find the links that connect it with lower forms of board games, and the Indian game from which our own is derived, almost without change, is the source from which the many variants of the chess game doubtless originated. Several of these offspring of the Indian chess are shown in this case, including those of Burma, Siam, the Malay peninsula, China, and Japan. A Moorish board is exhibited with them, and European chessmen and boards follow. A finely carved ivory chess set represents the pieces that are made for export by the Chinese at Canton. Draughts, which in the opinion of Edward B. Tylor may be regarded as a modern and simplified form of chess, now follow, and here are shown two sets of interesting German draughts-men of the eighteenth century."

Games of chance, in which dice, dominoes, and cards, or their equivalents, are variously employed, are included in a division which is profusely illustrated. The American Indians almost throughout the entire continent played a game with marked plum-stones, bones, or wooden pieces, a small basket taking the place of the dice-box. In the East Indies cowries are used; in Peru, knuckle bones, and in China the roots of the bamboo. Specimens of these and other primitive implements are displayed, among them the bones in their natural state from the legs of the sheep, used by the Syrians in their games of chance. The oldest die in the collection is formed of clay and bears date 600 B.C. It was discovered among the effects of the Greek colony of Naucratis in Egypt.

The game of dice, it is said, was carried from India into China, where the twenty-one possible throws with two pieces each received a name. To this day it still remains the principal game of its class in the flowery kingdom, where in the twelfth century dominoes were invented and cards evolved from dominoes and chess. All this is clearly illustrated, as also is the origin of backgammon from the game of "Twelve Lines" played in the time of the Roman empire and during the middle ages. From Damascus is a pearl-inlaid backgammon board, and a similar article is displayed by the Siamese commission. In China and Japan, however, [645] backgammon is not usually played as in Europe and America. In one of the Chinese games here exhibited is a large paper chart upon which are printed the titles of various officials, and the players are advanced or degraded in rank according to the throws of their four cubical dice.

Besides the Chinese, there are several packs of East Indian cards, circular in form, with flower and proverb cards from Japan, and some of the earliest specimens known to Europe, including those which first appeared in Venice. It is generally conceded that playing cards were invited in China during the twelfth century; and among the most interesting of the collections is the one exhibited by W. H. Wilkinson, consul at Swatow, consisting of a series of dice, dominoes, and cards gathered from the principal cities of the empire. From this it may be seen how very similar are the games of cards as played in China and Europe. The suit marks in the Italian cards consist of money, cups, swords, and clubs, and during the early period of their manufacture the printing was performed with stencils. Side by side are the cards that were used in Florence, Milan, and Naples, with the stencils, brush, and unfinished card sheets from a Florentine maker who still adopts this ancient mode of manufacture. In the old German packs the suits are hearts, bells, leaves, and acorns, and in the court cards the queen is omitted. Beautiful specimens of modern make are also exhibited, [646] which show the French suit marks of hearts, diamonds, spades, and clubs, now generally adopted. Other European varieties are here, as well as various Spanish and Mexican packs, some of the latter resembling those of Italian make.

As already stated, the bureaus of charities and corrections and of hygiene and sanitation, included in the department of Liberal Arts, were installed in the Anthropological building, this being due to the urgent demand for space by the educational institutions of the United States and foreign countries. The aim of the latter bureau was to demonstrate, as far as possible, the condition of sanitary science at the present day, and especially to show that it has not received the attention and support which its importance demands. Notices were sent to universities and colleges, boards of health, sanitary and hygienic societies, physicians, manufactures of gymnastic and hygienic supplies, and the public generally, soliciting contributions to the several groups into which the exhibits were to be divided. The result was a most creditable display, not least among the purposes of which was to call the attention of municipal authorities to the lax sanitary systems prevailing in their midst. If in this it did not altogether succeed, that was through no fault of the department. In the section containing gymnastic and hygienic supplies a Providence company has in its spacious pavilion every form of appliance; a St. Louis house exhibits apparatus for home training, and a Michigan sanitarium displays models of its buildings and the articles therein contained, especially as to the styles of dress considered most healthful for women and best adapted to their physical development.

In the section devoted to physical development, training, and condition are numerous appliances, for the most part of modern fashion. Beginning with the nursery and its accessories, they include such as pertain to gymnasia, to wrestling, rowing, hunting, skating, climbing, and acrobatic and other exercises, with special apparatus for the drill and training of pupils in public schools and higher institutions of learning.

In the hygienic and in other departments there are various appliances for analyzing food and water and for sterilizing meat extracts and infant foods, thus removing all disease germs. Many of these are from German inventors and sanitarians, while state boards of health show their interest in this line of investigation by contributions of hygienic literature, with maps and diagrams, and of appliances used in the detection of impurities and adulterations. For example, Pennsylvania displays a bacteriological outfit, including apparatus for collecting specimens of drinking water from hydrants. From New Jersey are specimens of adulterated foods and drugs, while Massachusetts illustrates modern methods of analyzing them. Women have also many practical suggestions to offer in this connection, [647] the Ladies� Health Protective association of New York, for instance, furnishing models and photographs of abattoirs and dust carts. The empire state is further represented outside the building in a frame structure and tent, the former containing the exhibits of cooking schools, with a model kitchen and a lecture room where also are held discussion and practical demonstrations having a special bearing on the preparation of foods for invalids and children. Within the tent is a complete outfit of camp utensils, with health appliances for outdoor life. The exhibit of the cooking schools is under the management of Mrs. J. S. T. Stranahan, Juliet Corson, the founder of the first institutions of this character in the United States, acting as the leader of the classes.

Before taking leave of this subject, it may also be stated that in the Anthropological building is a large apparatus for cleansing water - not only so-called germ-proof filters, but appliances for purifying both water and meat by electricity. For those who desire still further to pursue their investigations, there is an abundance of literature devoted to the subject, with dietaries especially designed for the army, the navy, and the prison, while in models, charts, and transparencies are shown the effects of disease caused by impure food and water, with the appearance of the special germs which the vitiated blood is unable to absorb or reject.

A division of the hygienic department in which many are interested is that which illustrates improper modes of building, draining, ventilating, and warming, the defects being shown in tenement houses, flats, city and country residences, as well as in public structures. New York and country residences, as well as in public structures. New York and Pennsylvania are especially prominent in showing the latest improvements in the construction of tenement houses and residences for working-men. At the north end of Midway plaisance the women of Philadelphia have reproduced one of the 170,000 cottages owned by the working-men of that city, and here is in truth a model as to sanitary requirements. In the southern portion of the grounds New York is represented by a plain frame structure of two stores, surrounded by a small grass plat and flower garden, such as can be built for the sum of $900, and large enough for a married couple and a family of several children.

As to questions relating to public health there is also a large amount of material from many states, including diagrams, maps, and publications explaining their sanitary condition, with the means adopted to prevent disease. Water-works and sewerage systems, public baths and lavatories and the various methods for disposing of sewage and garbage are illustrated in this division. Several manufactories also exhibit special appliances, a Des Moines company showing a fire closet made of iron stone, intended for burning the refuse from private or public buildings. In the extreme southeastern corner of the grounds the same company has a furnace constructed for city use in which is [648] consumed a portion of the garbage collected from the Exposition grounds and restaurants.

In illustrating the various methods for the prevention and arrest of epidemic diseases, the plan embraces compulsory vaccination and the results attending the isolation of infectious diseases, as well as measures for the exclusion and elimination of animal epidemics. In this group is fully illustrated the quarantine system of the country, and especially in the appliances used at the Mississippi river station below New Orleans. A model of its plant, which is one of the best of its class, is placed upon an elevated platform, and includes a wharf supported on piles, with a vessel moored to it undergoing fumigation. Alongside the vessel is the quarantine tug-boat, on board of which are the sulphur furnace and suction blower used in purifying the air in the hold. Pipes lead from the tug to the open hatches of the ship, whence the foul air passes through the furnace, while sulphurous acid is forced into every crevice below the decks. Along the front edge of the wharf are the pipe and a connecting system of hose, through which bi-chloride of mercury is distributed wherever a disinfecting solution is required. Along the front of the wharf is a railroad track, with a car containing a second fumigating apparatus, which can be placed opposite any hatchway where it is needed. But the most interesting feature is the method of disinfecting the ship�s bedding and furnishings, and the wearing apparel of the passengers. The apparatus consists of a series of connected steel cylinders, extending along the wharf, their open ends facing the vessel, and each cylinder fitted with coils of steam pipe. In rear is a large boiler which supplies the steam required to destroy the germs of disease, thermometers placed at convenient points showing when the proper degree of temperature has been reached.

In less attractive fashion is exhibited the quarantine system of New York and the city water supply from the Croton aqueducts, while Buffalo sends photographs of its public crematory, and the Massachusetts board of health an exhibit which is worthy of special mention. In the principal court of the pavilion occupied by this board are diagrams and charts illustrating its scope and work in relation to diseases and epidemics, with vital statistics, statements of comparative mortality, and the influence of density of population upon the public health. As this organization is intrusted by legislative enactment with the guardianship of the inland waters of the state, it has established an experiment station near the Merrimac River at Lawrence. Here samples of the water supplied to cities and towns are analyzed, special reports being made of the results and of examinations into methods of sewage disposal. There are also photographs, charts, filtering sands, a specimen experimental filter, and [649] other appropriate material. Elsewhere in this section, and in a smaller pavilion or annex, are exposed the various systems of adulteration in food and drugs, with specimens of trichinae, charts, bearing upon trichinosis as existing in Massachusetts, plans of the sewage system of Boston, and photographs of the precipitation works of Worcester by chemical agencies, with views of the sewage fields in operation and diagrams of the principal filter beds constructed throughout the state.

But it is on the department of charities and correction that many of the states, and especially Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois have concentrated their exhibits, forming together a most elaborate and interesting display. The mentally defective, the deaf and dumb, the sick and injured, the orphan, the criminal, and the pauper, all these and other classes are represented in the many institutions described on printed page, or shown in photograph and model. Of special interest are the miniature reproductions of the New York and Pennsylvania institutions, the model of the Elmira reformatory being the largest in the hall and so constructed that the visitor can not only examine the front of the structure but the arrangement of the cells and the interior plan. A ghastly object is the facsimile of the heavy oaken chair, with its cushioned foot-rest in which Kemmler, the murderer, was put to death by electricity.

From the empire state are pictures and charts of the Buffalo hospital for the insane, a model of the Utica asylum, and exhibits representing the Willard asylum, the Binghamton state hospital for the insane, and the industrial school at Rochester. There are also contributions from the New York house of refuge on Randall�s island, from the Hebrew orphan benevolent association, the Hebrew technical institute, the St. John�s guild floating hospital of New York, the soldiers� and sailors� home at Bath, and the Fitch creche of Buffalo, the last with a practical exhibit of its methods and workings in the Children�s building. Among others are the Letchworth plan for an almshouse, and such establishments as the Fitch accident hospital in Buffalo, the cancer hospital for women, and the Montefiore home for chronic invalids. Accompanying these exhibits is a mass of general information presented by the state boards in charge of reformatory and charitable institutions.

The excellent penal systems of Pennsylvania are displayed to good advantage in the large and faithful models of the penitentiaries at Philadelphia, Allegheny city, and Huntingdon. The well known reform school at Morganza is represented by specimens of work contributed by the inmates, as also is the industrial home for [650] blind women at Philadelphia. A number of orphan asylums and aid societies testify to Pennsylvania�s activities in this direction, while her reputation for medical science is upheld by such organizations as the Jefferson medical college and the Jewish hospital association of Philadelphia.

In the Massachusetts section there is a model of the hospital department of the state almshouse at Tewksbury, the management of which was investigated several years ago, with results that caused a profound sensation throughout the United States. Another model is that of the McLean hospital at Somerville, including the training school for nurses, with photographs and explanatory material. The appliances used in the Boston city hospital and nurses; school form an instructive feature of their exhibit, and there are specimens of work from several industrial schools, from the reformatory for women at Farmingham, and the penitentiary at Concord junction. With these and a few other exceptions the charitable and reformatory institutes of Massachusetts are represented mainly in pictorial and literary form.

Among the western states Ohio and Illinois are largely represented, the former by its insance asylums, its girls� industrial home, its home for the blind, and its state reformatory. As to the construction of penal establishments there are the exhibits of the Van Dorn iron works, of Cleveland, and the Champion iron company, of Kenton. Here are shown the strongest locks, doors, window guards, cells of iron and steel, and all else that is needed to keep the criminal safely in jail, a matter at least as important as to keep him out of it. The firms which make such work their specialty employ their own architects and control a large number of patents, the secrets of which are closely guarded.

In the Illinois section are charts relating to crime and pauperism, prepared by an expert, and identical with those which were published in the eleventh national census. The charities of Chicago are represented by its Relief and Aid society, its Children�s Aid society, by two German organizations, one of them an Old People�s home, and by an exhibit in connection with the "fresh air fund," established by the Daily News for the care and medical treatment of young children at its sanitarium in Lincoln Park. From the school of agriculture and manual training at Glenwood is also a display of photographs, statistics, and specimens of work. Baltimore sends a model of the Johns-Hopkins hospital and illustrates the workings of its training school for nurses, while from other cities and states, and even from individuals are exhibits which attest their interest in this department of the Fair.

In the gallery of the Anthropological building are the sections devoted to natural history, history, and anthropology, the exhibits in the last [651] of these divisions being installed in a series of laboratories. Here are also the offices of the department and a number bo miscellaneous groups. Occupying the entire southern aisle is the collection from Ward�s Natural Science establishment, of Rochester, New York, in the centre of which is the Siberian mastodon, reproduced from the royal museum at Stuttgart, 16 feet high and with curved tusks six feet in length. Among the remains of mastodons taken from the ice near the mouth of the river Lena, during the eighteenth century, were portions of skin covered with long, coarse hair. Thus, with the skeleton reconstructed, scientists were enabled to clothe it as here represented in its natural state. Near by is the huge frame of a plesiosaurus, 22 feet long, the original of which was unearthed from English soil. The ichthyosaurus, the megatherium, the gigantic elk of Ireland, the wingless moa from New Zealand, the armadillo from Montevideo, and other evolutionary forms of bird, beast, and fish are also displayed in skeleton form or as casts, many of the latter taken from the British museum. Suspended from the gallery ceiling is the skeleton of a whale, and elsewhere a huge octopus with arms outstretched as if to seize its prey. Other specimens there are, from those of mammals, especially deer, elk, and moose, largely from Maine and Colorado, down to trilobytes, corals, and crustacea, together illustrating the progressive forms of animal life through many geologic eras.

Of fossils the most valuable collections are from Nevada, Wisconsin, and Indiana, and especially from the first of these states, which shows specimens unearthed in the deepest levels of its mines, some of them from strata 2,000 or 3,000 feet below the surface. Of special interest are the footprints found at Carson in a Laurentian formation of the azoic division of rocks, a granitoid gneiss, in which no traces of life had before been discovered.

In the eastern aisle is fully illustrated by state, individual, and foreign exhibits the fauna of the present and recent periods, grouped in a series of exhaustive and interesting collections. From the New York state museum is a display of mammals, large and small, including life-like specimens of elk and buffalo, and an assortment of land and fresh-water shells. An Albion naturalist has cases of birds� eggs and a number of delicate wall pieces showing the manner of nesting, one of them representing a family of ruffed grouse, the mother carefully guarding the eggs, with a brood of little ones half hidden in the grass.

A group of moose heads is a prominent feature in the Ontario section, and close at hand is a family of otter, one of them in the act of devouring a fish, the latter the work of a New York taxidermist. On a mass of rugged rocks are displayed the birds and mammals of Pennsylvania, the birds among bushes or perched upon branches of trees, a black bear protruding his snout from a cave, and squirrels, otter, mink, muskrats, and other animals, all in their natural habitats. The Agassiz association, of St. Louis, Missouri, illustrates its work in promoting the study of natural history, and among private contributions is a collection of moths and butterflies gathered from every quarter of the world. Here also the government of Brazil has a small exhibit, [653] in which are the crouching cougar, leopard, baboon, boa-constrictor, and various birds of bright plumage and discordant voice.

As to the contents of the northern gallery, they are thus described by the chief of the Anthropological department. "Here," he says, "is a large collection of instruments and apparatus, received from the more important anthropological laboratories of the universities in this country and from several in Europe, with a very interesting series of apparatus made especially for this exhibit by the principal makers in Europe and the United States. The laboratories are divided into three sections - physical anthropology, neurology, and psychology. In these laboratories the practical working of the apparatus is shown, and any one who wishes can have various tests applied, and can be measured and recorded upon cards, which are given to the subject upon the payment of a small fee, while the record is made upon the charts and tables hanging on the walls of the laboratory to illustrate the various subjects. Here, too, is a series of skulls and skeletons and various models showing the physical characteristics of the various races and varieties of man. An interesting series of charts in the physical-anthropological section is that illustrating the development of over 90,000 school children in various cities of North America. Another series of diagrams and maps shows the physical characteristics of the Indians of North America, as derived from measurements and observations upon 17,000 Indians, recorded by about seventy-five assistants of the department, who were engaged for nearly two years in this work. One of the alcoves is devoted to the Sargent models of the typical man and woman and the anthropometrical work illustrating physical development. Another alcove is devoted to the anthropological library formed by the department, and on the walls are the plans and photographs of several of the principal anthropological museums."

Elsewhere is a variety of groups, consisting largely of collections of coins and postage stamps. From a Russian contributor comes a private collection of the rare ancient coins from his native land, with others belonging to the classic era of Greece and Rome. Clocks of an early date, ancient and modern weapons, and antique metal work and ornaments fashioned by the Norse colonists of Iceland are also among the individual displays. Coming nearer home, Pennsylvania and Ohio have exhibits relating to the history of the republic. From the former is a model of the Yorktown court-house of revolutionary days, and the latter reproduces the Campus Martius of Marinette, the pioneer settlement, the pioneer settlement of the west.

Bearing more directly on the Columbian Exposition than any of the collections within the hall of Anthropology are those which are stored in a monastic edifice elsewhere in the grounds. As the visitor passes from [654] the central court toward the pier which extends into the lake, he observers at the extremity of a rocky headland on his right a gloomy, odd-looking structure, with belfry and tower, with small, dark windows let into plastered walls, and heavy cumbersome doors, its sombre aspect somewhat relieved by a roofing of red tiles. The building and its immediate foreground are reproduced from the monastery of La Rabida, within a league of Palos, where Columbus, asking for a morsel of bread and a cup of water for his boy, Diego, was invited to make his abode, and matured the plans which gave to Spain her New World empire.

Rich in historic interest is this little hamlet of Palos, once a flourishing port, but now a dilapidated port, but now a dilapidated village, with a few short grass-covered streets, deserted by all except for a few fishermen and farmers, its waters so low that only the smallest craft can reach the rush grown harbor whence the Columbian flotilla set sail toward the unknown. Here are still pointed out the ruins of the house where the Pinzons dwelt, and on a hill in the outskirty of the village is the Moorish mosque, converted into a church, where in May, 1492, the alcade Rodriguez Prieto read from his pulpit the mandate of the Spanish sovereigns, ordering the people to furnish and equip two vessels for the use of the expedition. Of this mandate or proclamation the original is shown in the chapel of La Rabida at Jackson park.

Apart from the interest which attaches to La Rabida because of the Columbian episode, there are other historic associations dating back to the second century of the Christian era. While the emperor Trajan was sojourning at Seville occurred the death of his daughter, Proserpine, whereupon the governor of the province, to secure his favor, erected a temple where now the convent stands, and placing on its altar a golden image of Proserpine, offered pardon to all offenders who would seek the protection of its shrine, bidding his people here to hold festival on each recurring birthday of the Caesar�s child. During the decadence of the Roman empire the temple passed under the control of the Christians, who, assimilating this festival with their own ceremonies, gave to it the name of the Candelaria or Purification. An image of the virgin, a gift from the bishop of Jerusalem, carved, as the legend relates, by Saint Luke, and possessed of miraculous powers, was replaced by the Moors with a bone of Mohammed, which remained on the altar until their expulsion from the western seaboard. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the monastery was occupied by the knights-templar, who decorated its walls with classic paintings of considerable merit. After the monks returned to its cloisters, the prior ordered that a coat of white plaster be laid upon them, lest the meditations of the brethren be diverted by these nude figures of Venus and Juno, of Cupid and Bacchus. When Columbus arrived at La Rabida it had but recently come into the possession of the Franciscans, to whom, on the 12th of October, 1492, Isabella of Spain gave a deed conveying all rights and titles.

Such, in brief, is the history of this famous convent, the full title of which, rendered in English, is The Monastery of St. Mary on the frontier. In the reproduction is the exact appearance which it presented in the days when Columbus accepted the hospitality of the fathers; for to this condition the original was restored by the Spanish government. The task was intrusted to Senor Velasquez, a trained and skillful architect, a man of artistic tastes and archaeological lore, one thoroughly conversant with the religious and historic associations connected with his subject. By a lieutenant in the United States navy, engaged in constructing the Columbian caravels, the plans and drawings of Velasquez were secured for Exposition purposes, and the result was the building already described.

[655] - The project for the historic collection of La Rabida was submitted to congress and the board of directors by William E. Curtis, chief of the Latin-American bureau and director of the bureau of the American republics. It was favorably received; was endorsed by James G. Blaine, the secretary of state, and largely through his efforts a portion of the funds set apart for the government exhibit was devoted to this purpose. Then the chief set himself to work, intending, as he says, to gather every existing relic of Columbus; the originals are copies of every picture, statue, and monument relating to Columbus and the history of his career, with all the rare manuscripts, books, and charts pertaining to the discovery and early settlement of America. A well-known author and naturalist was sent to the West Indies, with instructions to follow in the track of the discoverer, and with photographic apparatus for taking views wherever he might find a subject; another performed the same duty in Spain; by the United States consul at Genoa representations were secured of the birthplace and early career of Columbus, and by a man-or-war were visited the site of Isabella and the spot where the Santa Maria was wrecked. From ministers and consuls many treasures were secured, with loans from foreign collections both public and private, and assistance from those who had made a special study of early American history.

The exhibits in the first section are intended to explain the condition of geographic science at the time of the discovery. Among them is a facsimile of Martin Behaim�s globe of 1492, on which is represented about all that was known of the earth�s surface at the time of the first Columbian expedition. There is also a group of maps and charts showing the growth of geographic knowledge from the days of Ptolemy, the father of geography, with copies of his works and those of other writers of his age. There is a reproduction in bronze of a celestial globe of the eleventh century, and of Arabian make. There is a crusaders� map of the thirteenth century on which is indicated the route from London to Jerusalem, with other maps and charts from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries. There is a portrait of Marco Polo, with a copy of his books of travels with some marginal notes made by Columbus during his several voyages. There are evidences of pre-Columbian discoveries, especially those of the Norsemen, with a picture of a ship such as that in which, in the tenth century, Leif Erikson voyaged from Greenland to Finland. Of exceeding interest are the copies of documents furnished by Leo XIII from the secret archives of the Vatican, where 14,000 volumes were examined as to the claims of Norsemen to the discovery of America. While these claims were not substantiated, it was proved that a catholic bishopric existed in Greenland as early as the twelfth century, and that to the east of it were regions peopled by savages.

Another section, relating to the court of [656] Ferdinand and Isabella, contains portraits of the latter as a child, as a queen, in the armor which she wore at the siege of Granada, and in the act of accepting its capitulation. There are also facsimiles of her golden sword, her sceptre, crown, and treasure-chest, with the original of her will executed at Medina del Campo on the 23d of November, 1504, the day before her death. Other portraits and statues are of Ferdinand as a boy and in middle age, of their son, Don Juan of Aragon, of their daughters Isabella and Juana, of Charles V, Phillip II, and Alfonso XII. In models or in graphic art are represented the castle of Medina del Campo, the city of Santa Fe, the tomb of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Alhambra, the surrender of Boabdil, and the Torre del Picos through which the Moorish sovereign rode when about to deliver the keys of his castle and palace.

A third section is devoted to the birthplace, parentage, and boyhood of Columbus, with pictures of every place and scene with which he was identified before his arrival in Spain. There are views of the city and harbor of Genoa, of the house and street in which he is said to have been born, and the home at Quinto where his father and mother lived and were married. The village of Cogoleto is also shown, and the street that fronts on its beach, where is an ancient structure with the following pretentious inscription: "Traveller stop at this place. It was here that Columbus, the greatest man in the world, first saw the light; here in this humble house! There was one world: this man spoke, and there were two." There are views of the University of Pavia where he studied; of the church at Lisbon where he married; of the Madeira islands and the houses in which he lived at Funchal and Porto Santo, with a table and a cane made from the timber contained therein, and the door, doorstep, lock, and key taken from one of these dwellings.

Then follows the history of Columbus in Spain, with pictures of the original monastery of La Rabida, and some of the bricks and tiles that were used in its construction more than sixteen centuries ago. In a series of photographs or copies from celebrated paintings, are shown the places where he lived or visited, with all the varied incidents of his career. There is Columbus asking alms at the monastery gate, in consultation with Father Marchena, before the Dominicans, the junta, and the council of Salamanca, at the court of Isabella, recalled at the bridge of Pines, and receiving from the queen the offer of her jewels. Other views are also identified with the story of his life, as of the cell in which he lived at La Rabida; the city of Cordova, its mosque, and its old Roman gate near which he sojourned for several months; the town of Palos, its church of [657] St. George, and the tavern where he rested midway on his journey from the convent.

In the following sections are illustrated his several voyages and the incidents and associations connected therewith, from his leave-taking with Father Marchena in 1492 to his shipwreck at Christopher�s cave in Jamaica in 1504. Relating to this first of these voyages are valuable charts presented by the historian, Rudolph Cronau, with pictures loaned by Spain, Germany, and France, and one by the Italian artist, Gabrini representing his landing at San Salvador. The caravels are reproduced and the departure from Palos, the mutiny at sea and the first cry of land. In photographic form are shown the points at which he touched in Cuba and San Domingo, with the site of the Indian village of Guarico, where the wreck of the Santa Maria was brought ashore, from which the admiral built his fort of Navidad. There is also the anchor which he carried on his flagship, found in the ruins of the stockade after its destruction in 1493, with other relics gathered in its neighborhood. Of Watling Island there are several sketches, including the spot where Columbus is said to have landed; its coast, its lagoons, and interior; its lighthouse, Baptist chapel, and magistrates residence; its farmers and fishermen, the former still earning a scanty livelihood by raising meagre crops of grain and vegetables. From an old print is shown the island of San Salvador as described in the journal of the discoverer. There are also views of St. Mary of the Azores; of Lisbon from the point where Columbus landed in 1493; of Barcelona and his reception there by Ferdinand and Isabella; of the wonders which he described, and of Hogarth�s rendition of the oft repeated story of the egg.

Pertaining to the second voyage are many views of Isabella, or rather of its ruins, whence and from its neighborhood were transferred to the convent at Jackson Park all the relics worth preserving, even to the stones of which its ancient church was built and the Moorish tiles and pieces of metal which the Spaniards brought with them to their first settlement in the New World. There are also fragments of armor, lance-heads, horseshoes, stirrups, and suprs, with an iron cross of antique design and a hawk�s bell used for trading with Indians in exchange for gold. But most interesting of all is the church bell which Ferdinand presented to the infant colony, the first one that proclaimed the glad tidings of salvation offered at the point of the sword. Quite a history of its own has this so-called "bell of the fig tree," on the surface of which are the initial letter of its donor�s name and an image of St. Michael, the patron saint of its sanctuary. Removed to La Vega in 1494, with everything else that was removable, when gold enticed the Spaniards into the mountains of Cibao, it was hung in the tower of the chapel, and there remained, until, seventy years later, the town was destroyed by an earthquake. For three centuries or more it lay amid the ruins, from which it was unearthed by a shepherd beneath the vine-covered masses of debris that buried the church and its bell. Thence is was taken to a church at Santo Domingo, where ever since it has been regarded as one of its most precious relics.

The third voyage is illustrate in many paintings and photographs, as of the Boca del Drago near which Columbus first set foot on the mainland, and thence turned northward, his system racked with the gout and his eyes almost sightless from exposure and want of sleep. The anchor is shown which he cast off the island of Trinidad on an August night of 1498, when a wall of water from the estuary of the Orinoco threatened destruction to his ships. While digging a trench on a cocoanut plantation near [659] Icaques, where the land has encroached on the sea, this anchor was exhumed many years ago, by a party of laborers, probably from the spot where it was lost. There is the autograph letter of Francisco Roldan which caused the disgrace of Columbus and brought him home in shackles. There are pictures of Columbus in chains; of the chains themselves with the inscriptions thereon; of the citadel and cell at Santo Domingo where he was imprisoned by Bobadilla, and a splinter from the beam to which he was fastened in his dungeon. There is a copy of his famous letter written from Cadiz harbor to the nurse or governess of Prince Juan, in which the great admiral bemoans his fate as one who "has now reached the point where there is no man so vile, but thinks it his right to insult him." Finally is shown his reception by Isabella, of which Oviedo writes: "The queen burst into tears and Columbus fell sobbing at her feet. She took his hands and led him to a seat, and when able to control his emotion, he recited at length the wrongs and humiliations he had suffered in her service. Ample restitution was promised; but there is no evidence that Columbus ever received anything more than sympathy."

As to his fourth and last voyage there are pictures of all the places which he visited, with others illustrating the popular ideas of the time concerning New World inhabitants. Among them is a view of Santo Domingo, where for his tiny caravels, about the size of fishing-smacks, he asked in vain for shelter from an approaching storm. A photograph shows a street in Trujillo, near the spot where Columbus landed while following the shore line, still in search of a western passage around the world. But now his strength had departed from him, and all that remained was a shattered constitution, a failing intellect, and an iron will. Nevertheless he persisted, exploring the entire coast of the Isthmus until its unbroken its unbroken barrier mocked at his life-long effort and forced him to abandon a project dearer than life itself.

On the site of Trujillo he had purposed to found a colony; for here were signs of gold; and leaving there his brother Bartholomew with a sufficient force, was about to set sail for Spain, when the embryo settlement was exterminated by Indians and the survivors taken on board the caravels. The Indian huts are reproduced as Columbus found them, as also are the stronghold built by Cortes in 1526 and the chapel erected there in 1540. A scene on the river near Trujillo shows where his men did battle with the natives, and one on the Rio Dulce, in Guatemala, where his vessels went ashore. There are views of Puerto Bello, where a band of his colonists, left to espy whence the Indians gathered their gold, found only a nameless grave. The fight with Porras on the coast of Jamaica and the shipwreck at Christopher�s cove are illustrated, and there is the "Lettera Rarissima di Cristoforo Colombo," in which are painfully apparent his broken spirit and his tottering reason. "I was twenty-eight years old," he says, writing to the king from Jamaica, "when I came into your Highness� service, and now I have not a hair upon me that is not gray; my body is infirm, and all that was left to me, as well as to my brother, has been taken away and sold, even to the frock that I wore, to my great dishonor."

Still other sections are devoted to the last days of Columbus, his death and burial, to relics not classified in other divisions, and to the literature of the discovery. Engraved on copper, in 1580, is a view of the city of Seville, with the admiral�s house and a cross made of New World gold. There is the convent of Cartuja, where returning from his final voyage he sojourned for a season with Father Corricio, spending his time in bemoaning his misfortunes and writing incoherent letters. A facsimile of an autograph page from his [660] De las Profecias, the manuscript of which is in the Columbian library at Seville, belongs to an unpublished work attempting to prove that his discoveries were prophesied in holy writ.

But let us turn aside from these last sad days, these mournful evidences of "a mind diseased;" for now his end was near. Of the death of Columbus at Valladolid, and the house in which he died, there are copies of pictures by Ortego, Robert Fleury, Carlos Lira, and others, one of them a large oil painting hung in the corridor. Here is shown the building, at that time used as an inn, where on the 20th of May, 1506, he breathed his last, with none at his bedside, so far as is known, save for his brother Bartholomew. It is a plain unpretentious structure, still almost intact, and over its doorway hung, until recent years, a sign announcing the sale of Leche de burros y vacas - that is to say, of cows� and asses� milk. As to this event the chroniclers of the are are singularly reticent; nor was there even official record, until on the back of one of his appeals to the king, received many days after his decease, was endorsed by a clerk the simple legend; "The within admiral is dead." Thus unhonored passed away the many whom all mankind has honored, and never more so than on this the fourth hundredth celebration of the greatest achievement recorded on history�s page.

In graphic art are reproduced the chapel of the convent at Cartuja, where his remains were laid at rest, the cathedrals of Santo Domingo and Havana to which they were removed, and in facsimile are his leaden coffin and its enclosing urn. There are photographs of his bones and portions of his dust, the latter in locket and crystal case. Of his brothers, his son Diego, and certain of his descendants, including the present duke of Veragua, there are autographs and portraits, and prepared by the duke himself, whose parentage and ancestry are freely represented in pictorial form, is a diagram tracing the lineage of Columbus down to the present day.

Among the Columbian relics contained in a special section are copies of several of his formal, autograph letters and documents, of which more than sixty are still preserved; for Columbus was a voluminous writer, and as the court jester of Charles V remarked, "He and Ptolemy the geographer were twins in the art of blotting." His coat-of-arms is shown, with the original decree which granted it, a photograph of his breviary, or of what is supposed to have been his, and some of the actual coins, of which about a score are still in existence, fashioned, as is said, from the gold which he brought with him from Espanola. There is a photograph of the votive offerings which he left on the shrine of the virgin at Siena in northern Italy, and as a loan from the national museum at Washington is one of the bolts to which he was chained in his dungeon at Santo Domingo.

As to the literature of the discovery there is here reproduced the title page of a letter published in pamphlet form in 1493, a few months after Columbus� return to Palos. On his homeward voyage he wrote two accounts of the expedition, one of which was rendered and printed in Latin; but this priceless manuscript, after serving its purpose, was probably thrown away as useless; for it has never been found. It was but a tiny pamphlet, without the least attempt at ornament or even an initial letter; yet it passed through several editions the first one containing only eight pages with thirty-four lines to the page. Translated into English the title reads in part as follows: "Letter from Christopher Columbus, to whom our age oweth much, concerning the [661] islands of India beyond the Ganges, recently discovered, in the search of which he was sent eight months ago under the auspices and at the expense of the most invincible King of the Spains, Ferdinand. Addressed to the noble lord Rafael Sanchez, treasurer of the most serene King, the year one of the pontificate of Alexander VI." Of this edition only three copies are known to exist, one in the British museum, another in the Royal library at Munich, and the third in the Public library at Boston, purchases at public sale in 1890 for the sum of $3,000. Of other editions there are copies in various institutions and a few perhaps in private hands.

A second description of the voyage and its results was addressed to Luis de Santangel, and of this a copy of the first edition, printed at Barcelona in 1493, and said to have been found in Spain in 1889, was secured by the Lenox library of New York. The printed matter, which is in black-faced type, is contained on two leaves of the coarsest of paper, and to these others have been stitched, preserving the copy in good condition after four centuries of time. On one of the outer pages is a brief biography in manuscript of Saint Leocadia, one of the martyrs put to death at Toledo in the year 304.

Of the second voyage a narrative is shown in a ten page Latin pamphlet printed at Pavia in 1494, of which only two copies are known to be extant. As a loan from the congressional library is one of the three existing copies of a sermon of Bishop Carvajal delivered and published in 1493, in which, passing in review the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, he places first among its achievements the discovery of the western world. A photographic copy shows the famous bull of demarcation issued in May of the same year by Alexander VI. Another contribution from the library of congress is the first drama relating to America, published in 1494. One of the treasurers of the collection is the original of the Da Vinci map, showing as islands Florida and Newfoundland, with an imaginary passage westward to the ocean north of the coast line of South America. This is from the library of Queen Victoria, while from the Spanish government is the original of Juan de la Cosa�s chart of the West Indies drawn on an ox hide in 1500.

In a modern reprint is the Guiliano Dati poem, a metrical translation of the Santangel letter by the bishop of Saint Leone, and in the sorriest of doggerel. Among other works are Cosmographiae by Peter Apianus, a life of Columbus by his son Fernando, a history of the voyage of Magellan, the first three English books on America, a translation of the log book of Columbus, and one of the first sketches of his life, bearing date 1516. Of his first portrait there is a wood-cut from the original painting in possession of the bishop of Norica, and there is a rude wood-cut showing the natives of the West Indies preparing for a cannibal feast, this being the first pictorial illustration whose theme is the aborigines of America.

In two chambers of the upper cloister is a collection of pictures and books relating to what is termed the christening of the continent, showing how America received its name. Another section is devoted to the [662] conquests of Mexico and Peru, and still others to the original papers of or pertaining to Columbus, including his commission from the crown, with many of his letters and those from the sovereigns of Spain and Portugal. Finally there is the Vatican exhibit and a contribution from John Boyd Thacher relating to the discoverer and his discovery. In the former is a picture of "St. Peter Weeping," after Guido Reni�s masterpiece, the execution of which was a six years� labor of love. Others have for their subject "The Prophet Isaiah," "The Roman Forum," and "Theology," the last a copy from Raphael. The pope is shown in the act of blessing the people, and by Chatrau is a portrait of Leo XIII, as a token of his interest in this department of the Exposition. There is the Borgian map of America by Ribero, finished in 1529 presumably for Charles V. To the same date belongs the Ribero vellum chart of the old and new world. There are also several letters and bulls from the chief pontiffs, the oldest of them being from Nicolas V, an epistle of the 20th of September, 1448, and relating to the condition of the church in Greenland.

World�s Fair Miscellany - To William E. Curtis, chief of the Latin-American bureau, I am indebted for a valuable dictation on the monastery of La Rabida and its contents.

The ruins of Yucatan, discovered several years ago by E. H. Thompson, resident consul at Merida, were partially reproduced, as I have said, to the north of the Anthropological building, with a mechanical imitation of tropical verdure. For the latter purpose a pulp mixed with vegetable fibre was used, the base of which was a thick, tough paper, and this was hammered into every crevice of wall or sculptured figure. Seventeen months were thus spent by the consul and his Indian assistants before the casts were ready to be shipped to Chicago, and reproduced in staff. The ruined city of Uxmal, from which the most interesting sections of architecture were copied, is situated in the southeastern portion of Yucatan, more than 100 miles inland. Perhaps the most striking feature in this collection was the facade of the temple which showed the figure of the great feathered serpent, the ancient god Kukulkan.

Immediately west of the Anthropological building, in what appears to be a massive cliff of reddish brown, is represented Battle Rock mountain, a weird and solitary landmark of the desert of southwestern Colorado. Here are the so-called Cliff palace, Balcony house, and other abodes once inhabited by the cliff-dwellers. A museum shows in facsimile their pottery, weapons, implements, ornaments, clothing, and mummies, as found by exploring parties. There is also a cave filled with oil paintings reproducing other features in these prehistoric settlements, while at the base of the hill outside are small herds of deer, mountain sheep, and burros, browsing on sage-brush and yucca as in their native country.

Among rare archaeological specimens are the hand of Buddha, webbed up to the middle joints of the fingers, and the fragment of a temple frieze, found a few years ago by an officer in the British army, in the northern portion of India. Portions of other friezes have been discovered in the same locality and deposited in the British museum; but the figures upon them represent war, hunting, or athletic sports. [663] The central figure of the fragment here exhibited is that of Buddha holding in his hand the sacred lotus. A statue of Demosthenes, also reproduced in this department, was discovered in the country between the Swat and the Indus. It is supposed that the sculptor accompanied Alexander the great on his campaign into this part of Asia, and the work would thus bear date about 330 B.C.

What is claimed to be the largest piece of lapis lazuli in the world was displayed in the Anthropological building. It was found in one of Bolivia�s ancient tombs, is of beautiful color, and 30 by 18 inches in dimensions.

On the eastern shore of the south pond are groups of huts which, with their inmates, form a most interesting exhibit in the ethnological department. In the largest cluster is illustrated the daily life of the British Columbian and Alaskan Indians, their hideous totem poles standing in front of their village. Some of the poles supported the roof beams, and have carvings upon them of tribal significance. On one of the front posts of a hut occupied by the Nanaimo Indians, of Vancouver island, is the spirit of the sea called Squa-eque, and upon the rear post, a figure explained as "a man holding a goose." Another heraldic column has a raven upon its uppoer portion, and below, the spirit of the sea, whose open mouth forms the doorway. Through the legs of grizzly bears the visitor passes into other dwellings. The mythical thunder bird is perched over the door of the structure occupied by the Kuakiutl Indians, and on either side is a painting of the sun. Upon the totem poles of the Haidas and some of the Alaskan tribes are gigantic figures of sparrow hawk, wolf, eagle, bear, and frog. Moored to the shores of the pond are two long canoes, such as the Indians of Vancouver use on their hunting or fishing excursions. In all the totem-pole villages are Indians and their families, living as they do at home. Near by are represented, in a reproduction of the council-house of the Iroquois, the historic six nations of New York. The building is of bark, and in rear of it is the typical stockade. Within are chiefs of the Senecas and Onondagas, the latter being the keeper of the allied tribes; their grand sachem, Colonel Eli S. Parker, one of General Grant�s officers; a descendant of the famous chief, Cornplanter, and a proud looking little red man, well along in years, who claimed to be in his day the champion runner of the world, having made a wonderful record before the prince of Wales about a half century ago. Accompanying these notables of the male sex are several well-favored women, attending to household duties or offering for sale the products of their labor and skill.

Near the council-house of the Iroquois are several tepees of birch bark, in which live about a dozen Penobscot Indians, a remnant of a once powerful tribe, now reduced to a few hundred members, living on Indian island, or at Old Town, on the Penobscot river. The Crows have also a lodge of skins, colored with red and yellow ochre, and five Navajos occupy a log hut covered with sod.

North of this ethnological exhibit, organized as an illustration of the primitive life of the aborigines, is shown the reverse side of the picture. During the term of the Fair, Indian boys and girls whom the government was educating at different institutions in New Mexico, Kansas, Indians, and Pennsylvania, were sent to the model school of the Exposition. Of these and the attendant exhibits mention has been made in the chapter devoted to the government exhibits.

In the Anthropological building, one of the assistants in the office of the chief of the department was a tall, sinewy, finely-featured, full-blooded Apache named Antonio. He was born somewhere in the Sierra Madre mountains, Arizona, and when a child was captured during the government campaigns of 1877 against the famous chieftains Geronimo and Cochise, of whom he is a relative. Taken to Fortress Monroe, he afterward went to Europe on a yacht, becoming proficient in various trades and receiving his education at the night schools of New York and Boston. During the preliminary work of the department, Antonio met his employer at the Peabody museum, and was sent among the Navajos and Apaches to collect exhibits. At last accounts, Antonio�s ambition was to visit the Antwerp exposition, as the employee of some American exhibitor, and eventually to complete his education at Harvard university.

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