The Book of the Fair,
Digital History Project

THE BOOK OF THE FAIR: Chapter the Fifteenth:
Horticulture and Forestry
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[427] - To him who read aright the lessons of the Fair, one of the most significant is that the nations of the world are coming nearer together than ever before, and among its highest aims is to hasten this process of unification. Through the activities of man, even the vegetable kingdom is becoming, as it were, a universal brotherhood, and intelligently viewed, the Horticultural department not only affords an opportunity for comparing the products and methods of foreign lands with those of the United States, but offers a panoramic view of the entire vegetable world, its scenes of course shifting with the changing seasons, and though here described in the present tense, displaying innumerable phases such as neither pen nor picture can delineate.

Under the general term horticulture are included, for the purposes of the Exposition, viticulture, pomology, and floriculture, wines, fruits, and flowers being displayed in all stages of development. By means of photographs, books, and appliances are illustrated the modern management of vineyards, and methods of manufacture, bottling, packing, and shipping. In the pomological sections are fresh, dried, preserved, and canned fruits. In a miscellaneous department are nuts, jellies, vinegars, ciders, etc. Here also are mills and presses, and the latest inventions for drying and preserving fruit. Floriculture appears, decked in robes of beauty, gigantic palms and tropical plants forming a background to delicate ferns and flowers. Another subdivision consists of floral designs and flower stands, with ornamental plants and grasses, and literature relating to their growth and training. Vegetables and seeds, with all the best appliances for ornamental and landscape gardening, are also grouped under the general heading of horticulture.

Fronting 1,000 feet on the lagoon, and with an extreme width of 250 feet, the Horticultural building covers an area of five and three-quarter acres, and with its greenhouses, and other adjuncts, of eleven acres. But as to the size of this structure, and of the other principal structures of the Fair, a better idea may be conveyed by stating that the former, though one of the smallest of the group, is almost as large as the Crystal Palace, in which has been partially preserved the home of the London Exhibition of [428] 1851, and that it contains some 90,000 feet more of exhibiting space than all the three edifices used for similar purposes at the Philadelphia, New Orleans, and the last of the Paris expositions.

While intended mainly as a spacious conservatory, in structural design the Horticultural hall by no means suffers from comparison with its more ambitious neighbors. In a word its plan may be stated as including a central pavilion, more than 200 feet square, surmounted by a crystal dome, and connected with smaller pavilions at either end by two longitudinal series of galleries, glass roofed, from 50 to 70 feet in width, and inclosing garden courts, each somewhat more than half an acre in extent. A feature of the edifice is its decoration in alto and basso relievo, the frieze [430] which is six feet in height, and extends along three of its sides, displaying the handiwork of a cunning artificer.

As to inferior effect the arrangement of the building is admirable, and if exception has been taken to the depression of the dome, whose height of 115 feet is barely two-thirds of its diameter, it will be observed that the long, low facades of the conservatory forbid such towering aspirations as are not inappropriate to the more substantial structures of the Exposition. Moreover this seeming disproportion is relieved by the curved glass roofs of the galleries on either side, by the lower domes at its base, and by the crown with which it is surmounted.

By the architects, Jenney and Mundie of Chicago, was adopted in their decorative plan the style of the Venetian renaissance, while the walls of the front galleries and those which surround the side pavilions are divided by pilasters of the Ionic order into windowed bays, thus reducing the wall surface to the smallest possible area. At the principal entrance, from the terrace fronting on the lagoon, is a triumphal arch, the vestibule of which is profusely decorated with statuary, and on either side of the main pavilion are groups of sculpture fashioned by Lorado Taft, one representing the awakening of the flowers, and the other their repose at spring and autumn tide. These are among the most chaste and expressive of all the artistic embellishments of the Exposition buildings, and standing forth in bold relief under the vault of the central dome, form the complement of the architectural design.

From the promenade gallery encircling the dome, the hall itself, with its wealth of plant life and floral decoration, presents one of the most striking kaleidoscopic vistas contained in this city of wonderland. Rising nearly to the summit of the dome is a miniature mountain, gigantic ferns, and palms, creepers, and flowers of brilliant hue, giving to the scene a rich tropical aspect. Above are great hanging baskets, and at the base, around a border of green fringed with blossoms, the sago palm, Abyssinian banana, screw pine, and other striking forms of tropical vegetation. From the gallery also may be seen to excellent advantage the gigantic forest growths of Australia towering roofward like the pillars of a temple, and in a conservatory opposite the softer floral beauties of the United States.

If less picturesque, the central galleries furnish exhibits no less entertaining than those on the ground floor. Among them is a large collection of views of the botanic gardens in Sydney, New South Wales, which have sent so many of their treasures to the Fair. The gardens of the Imperial university at Tokyo are also well represented by photographs, and another interesting feature is the artificial fruits of the Yokohama Gardeners� association. Photographs of famous gardens and nurseries in the United States, diagrams of public parks in Colorado, Oregon, and elsewhere, with the models of villa gardens which line other sections of the wall, indicate that a principal object of this gallery exhibit is to illustrate the latest methods of landscape gardening. Then there are richly stocked herbaria, especially from the western states, and thousands of pressed plants and flowers tastefully displayed in revolving frames. One of the most remarkable collections was made by a woman of Colorado, who, for [431] months climbed its lofty ranges, and traveled over foothills and plains, contributing in no less than a thousand varieties an almost complete display of its flora. The mouse-fungus, with rust, blight, mildew, rot, and all the pests and plagues of the vegetable kingdom are here exemplified, and there are odd conceits for fences, rustic vases, and other garden ornaments, with collections of dried grasses, and preserved flowers made into wreaths, baskets, and other designs.

Descending to the base of the miniature mountain the visitor finds in this neighborhood, almost side by side with tropical exhibits, special displays from New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, the leading floricultural states. Palms from Australia and the Americas lift their graceful fronts, and here are represented the choicest treasures from the conservatories of millionaires, such men as the late Jay Gould, A. J. Drexel, George W. Child, and Erastus Corning. Here also an Indiana century plant first displayed its yellow flowers, with others of its kind on exposition, all under the great dome, and in the adjoining conservatory, while France shows the rich masses of rhododendrons in which she takes a national pride.

A broad avenue passes around the miniature mountain, and along its outer edge New York and Pennsylvania again present their floral displays. In one corner is an elegant booth in which are plants, hanging baskets, cut flowers, and floral ornaments and designs � a contribution from the empire state. A few steps further is a collection of New Jersey snap-dragons, and other insect devouring plants. In this locality is also a collection of plants from [433] the executive mansion, at Washington, the most striking of which is the so-called crown of thorns.

Forming a portion of the New York display is a large model of the national capitol, constructed of Canadian thistles, and near this are several large beds of Pennsylvania cacti, one of them alone containing three hundred varieties. Stepping into a small chamber in the form of a cave beneath the mountain, we find here a miniature reproduction of the famous Black Hills cave in South Dakota, with the stalactites and crystals which form the cathedral chimes, the bridal chamber, and other well known features, all represented with remarkable accuracy.

Entering the southern conservatory from the rotunda, we find ourselves in the midst of a profuse display of orchids and ferns, presented mainly by the New Jersey firm of Pitcher and Manda, whose exhibits are a prominent feature in the floricultural department. The orchid groups, which include private collections from Albany, Philadelphia, Jersey City, and other localities, are in truth one of the leading attractions of Horticultural hall, but as a considerable proportion of the 4,000 or 5,000 existing species, with all their varied forms, their brilliant hues, and delicate odors, is here on exposition, a detailed description would be obviously out of place.

Further to the south the women of Texas have their exhibit, those of Galveston contributing Cape jasmines and sweet bay trees, while Laredo sends a large bed of cacti, both of which attract many visitors to this section. Missouri�s display adjoins a grove of palms near the centre of the conservatory, and includes many rare and beautiful plants from the botanic gardens of St. Louis. Here also Pennsylvania has another large exhibit; Massachusetts occupies a limited space, and other states have scattering contributions. In the Illinois display are fine specimens of the bay laurel, and Indiana has a flourishing group of begonias. In this conservatory of the states is also a bed of cacti representing the botanic gardens at the national capital.

Corresponding to these exhibits south of the central court, is one in the northern section showing the floricultural collections of foreign lands. In the centre are the huge tree ferns from Australia, some of them forty feet high, with other plants of that species whose leaves are in many fanciful shapes. Here also are the staghorn ferns, from seven to eight feet in diameter, and as many in height, clinging to trunks of teak-wood trees, whose vitality has been exhausted in their embrace. At their feet are more delicate ferns with mosses, grasses, and many of the creepers which grow in [434] profusion amid Australian forests. In the Canadian exhibit adjacent, Ontario has many varieties of palms and ferns, eighty in number, and most of them from the horticultural gardens at Toronto. Among the former, one of the most remarkable is known as the Sabal Anderson description. Of other trees and plants, including cacti, flowering shrubs, and ornamental leaf plants, there is also a large collection.

Further toward the north is the Japanese garden, arranged in the simple, artistic fashion for which that people is famous. A rustic bridge spans a small pond, filled with gold-fish, and fringed with water-lilies and ornamental plants. Near by are the quaintest of urns and vases, containing orchids and other floral treasures, with plants of all kinds, miniature hills, among which are clusters of sago-palms and models of animal life, with a rough stone wall covered with native evergreens, morning-glories, and creepers, and with colored sands arranged in geometrical figures, all forming a picture in which is substantially reproduced a portion of the Japanese imperial garden.

On the opposite side of the conservatory are beds of cacti from Mexico, arranged as single specimens or in conglomerate masses, and ranging in size from that of an apple to a bushel basket. Some appear like petrified porcupines, or spiny creatures of the deep; others are thin and starved, and still others seem as if they had lived upon the fat of the land. This exhibit, as well as the other cactus beds scattered throughout the department, is specially typical of America. One of the most prolific of the forty or fifty species is the elephant tooth cactus, bearing a flower like a rose or lilac, red or crimson fruit succeeding the blossom. The fig cactus is similar in shape to the fruit from which it is names, its pale yellow flowers giving place to an edible product resembling the gooseberry, which serves as food for the cochineal insects, and at times for the inhabitants of Mexico and Central America.

Beyond the cacti bloom the cannas and begonias of Great Britain, and the azaleas of Belgium and Germany. Especially noticeable is the German display, neatly and artistically grouped around a central fountain. At the upper end of the conservatory, beyond the banners of Australia, and the white and red flags of Japan, are the tropical plants of Trinidad, and above her exhibit rests, on a large pedestal, the golden lion of Britain.

Between the main hall, the pavilions, and their connecting curtains, are two spacious courts, the ne to the south occupied by large basins or tanks filled with aquatic plants. In the northern court is a vault-like pavilion, 189 by 135 feet, constructed of iron, and stocked with South German wines. The facade and roof are adorned with appropriate statuary, and the walls [435] are covered with paintings illustrating various scenes in the wine producing districts of the German empire. The vine-clad banks of the Rhine and the Necker, the famous district of Moselle, the wine industries of Baden and Alsace-Lorraine, are all depicted in graphic art, while plaster casts and a sparkling array of wines in bottles complete this display from the fatherland. The historic monument of Germania and the Rhenish castle of Ehrenfels are reproduced, as models, in the entrance hall of this structure. The exhibits of wine are arranged according to locality, each specimen being labeled, and grouped with reference to the vineyard, village, or district where it was produced.

Apart from this the collection of wines is in the southern extremity of Horticultural hall, where Spain, France, and Germany, California, Australia, and other countries view with each other in the quality and artistic grouping of their exhibits. Spanish ports and sherries, fashioned into pyramids, are displayed in a gaudy pavilion, or series of arched, open structures. Sometimes the towers are formed of solid bottles; again the base is made of casks and barrels, with rows of bottles let into their sides. Within these glistening piles are real sherry wines from the Xerez district, the strong, dark vintages of Valencia, and lighter, sweeter grades from the Spanish sierras, from whose vineyards also come the grapes which are made into Malaga raisins.

A large portion of the French collection consists of sparkling champagnes, including a tastefully arranged exhibit from Rheims, its ancient home, and, with Epernay, still its most important centre. An immense bottle reaching nearly to the ceiling of the hall may be considered as a monument to the Benedictine monk, who, two centuries ago, gathered the wines from the districts surrounding Rheims, and by mixing them made the first champagne that history records. The white wines of the Sauterne and Gironde districts, the rosy Medocs, clarets, and Burgundies, and a dozen other brands appear in various devices, as contributions from exhibitors in Bordeaux, Marseilles, Paris, and Nancy. Cordials and mineral waters are also in plentiful supply, and models of machinery, as well as of vineyards in the famous districts of Medoc and Gironde, serve to break the monotony of endless rows of bottles. In photographs and charts are shown all the insects which injure the vine, and their mode of attacking it, the king of them all, the phylloxera, receiving the lion�s share of attention.

The German display in the southern section of the hall is a large and massive exhibit, of more general character than the one already mentioned. Worthy of note are the sweet, mellow wines of Rhenish Bavaria, the red wines of the Ahr, and the stronger products of vineyards planted on the banks of the Rhine; but most of the principal wine-producing districts of the empire, with their output of nearly 100,000,000 gallons a year, are here represented. In this collection also is a large assortment of beers and brandies, of cider, temperance, and [437] all other beverages that find favor in the fatherland.

Adjacent to this, and in the southwestern corner of the viticultural pavilion, is the display of California wines, by far the largest and most attractive of our domestic collections, its effect increased by the skillful grouping of the exhibits and the ingenious structure which contains them. A red cedar pavilion, 40 feet in height, is fashioned so as to resemble one of her giant trees, the main entrance having the appearance of an archway built of rocks, while around the trunk are various figures emblematic of viticulture. The goddess of the wine is crowned with a tiara of vines and grapes, and toward her an Indian girl is approaching with fruit-laden basket. A padre, with spade in hand, represents an early stage of the industry, and a huge grizzly bear is a character in Californian history which requires no introduction. From the gallery a staircase leads into the pavilion, so that the visitor may pass either from the ground or upper floor to the exhibits within.

Passing through the main doorway, we pause for a moment before a large panoramic view of the Golden Gate and the harbor of which it is the portal. Then turning to the exhibits, we notice first of all the collective display of several of the largest vintners and viticulturists, whose cellars in San Francisco and elsewhere contain larger stores of wine than those which Hannibal wasted, when, on his march toward Rome, he bathed his horses� feet in the choicest vintages of Italy. Of some of the vineyards, covering their thousands of acres, there are paintings by local artists, with tablets and appropriate mottoes. A favorite corner of the viticultural hall is in the shape of a redwood tank, garlanded with vines, and forming, with its contents, the exhibit of several large producers of Sonoma county, prominent among whom is an Italian-Swiss colony. In a separate structure are also represented the great vineyards and cellars of the late Leland Stanford, at Vina, in the Sacramento valley, its court opening through an arched entrance way into a spacious vault, lined on either side with barrels of huge proportions. In pictures are also reproduced these famous vineyards and wine cellars, together with the bonded warehouse in which at times is stored $1,000,000 worth of brandy. From Napa, Sonoma, Santa Clara, Alameda, and other counties there are smaller exhibits, all contributing of their best toward a combined display representing one of the foremost of Californian industries.

Not the least valuable exhibit is that of the State Viticultural commission, consisting of [438] practical and reliable descriptions of viticulture as pursued in California. On either side of its space are growing vines, above which are photographs of grape clusters, showing the best varieties for the production of wines, brandies, and raisins. Famous vineyards are also depictured, and in a colored series of state and county maps are shown the areas planted in many varieties of grapes.

From a few hundred acres of vineyard planted by the padres and their neophytes during the pastoral days of California, the area under cultivation increased to nearly 200,000 acres in 1892, with more than 150,000,000 vines, yielding, in full maturity, an average of three or four tones to the acre, a ton of grapes producing about 120 gallons of wine. It is not until recent years that the viticultural interests of California have assumed any large proportions, or indeed that here were known either the art of producing marketable wines or the grapes best adapted to the purpose. As late as 1860 the bulk of her wines was made of mission grapes, such as the Franciscan fathers transplanted from Mexico, and from which was extracted a light colored beverage, heavy, and rank of flavor. Later, many foreign varieties were introduced, largely through the efforts of the commission; and presently wine-making was based on scientific methods, and became a fairly profitable industry. Then came over-production, for as yet the demand was only for local consumption; but gradually California wines gained a foothold in eastern and European countries, especially in France, where they are doctored and often returned in adulterated forms, to be sold under foreign labels at from three to five-fold their original cost. In 1881 more than 3,000,000 gallons were shipped to the Atlantic states; in 1890 more than 12,000,000 gallon were forwarded by rail or sea, and of the present output, averaging some 20,000,000 gallons a year of wine and 1,500,000 of brandy, or more than one-half the entire yield of the United States, at least 70 percent is shipped to eastern and foreign markets.

Aside from California, the most elaborate of domestic collections are from New York, Ohio, and Missouri. The dry wines, champagnes, and brandies of the empire state are especially noticeable; exhibitors from Ohio and the region bordering on Lake Erie group their specimens in and around an elaborate column of bottles, and two of the most prominent wine companies of Missouri show their samples in neat and tasteful pavilions. New Jersey is also well represented, and among her participants is one of the oldest of German wine makers in the United States. From Manassas, Virginia, comes a specimen of her vintages, and there is wine from a vineyard planted on the battlefield of Bull Run.

Near the French section are towers and pyramids of bottles filled with the red and white wines of New South Wales. Photographs of her vineyards show that they are large and thrifty; and here also the information is conveyed that among the more important of native red wines are Burgundy, claret, and hermitage; of sweet wines, Muscat, port, and sherry; of white wines, hock, Madeira-dry, Shiraz, and Tokay. Australian vintages, it may here be observed, are gradually finding favor in European markets, with exports to England alone of 200,000 or 300,000 gallons a year. Already the tentative stage has been passed, and many varieties will bear comparison with the lighter wines of French production, while for domestic use they have almost superseded imported brands.

Across the aisle from the exhibit of New South Wales are the light wines of Austria-Hungary; and here also Russia displays the products of her Caspian and Caucasian vineyards. In a far corner of the hall are [439] the wines of New Mexico, North Carolina, and Japan, in small but tasteful groups. On the pavilion of North Carolina is an inscription which claims that her territory is the home of the grape; thus recalling the stories told by the discoverers of the Atlantic coast as to the profusion of wild grapes along Carolina shores. The Japanese booth has corner posts of bamboo poles, and above it is the national flag, whose device is a red ball upon a white background. The names upon the bottles are strange, and we wonder, for instance, what such a wine as selijyunbudosyu can be, hoping that the beverage is more palatable than its name suggests.

In the gallery of the viticultural section are the government exhibits of Italy, Greece, and Portugal, with miscellaneous assortments from France and Spain. The latter include the cordials of a Spanish manufacturer, of which, it is said, the Infanta loves to partake. On the opposite side of the gallery is the Portuguese collection, contained in a pavilion of which one of the arches spans the stairway leading to the upper floor. Vines are trellised over the wood-work, and the national flag and royal coat of arms are grouped over the principal arch. Within are said to be the genuine wines of the Oporto district. Italy occupies the western end of the viticultural gallery, her exhibit consisting mainly of ornamental structures, composed of casks and bottles, the centrepiece resembling a large flowering bush. Near the base of the structures are many large diplomas presented to Italian wine-makers at slopes of Mount Vesuvius. The wines and brandies of Greece are displayed in a white pavilion, the roof of which is supported by Corinthian pillars, and at the further end of this gallery are exhibits of California raisins, one in the form of a pyramid of glass cases from Escondido, and other neatly arranged by Fresno dealers and packers.

The pomological exhibits are mainly grouped along the curtains of Horticultural hall, and largely consist of the green products of the United States, and other lands. Shipping their fruits in compartments cooled by refrigeration, such distant regions as the Cape and Australian colonies forwarded their more hardy species in fresh condition, while grapes and orchard fruits of the season of 1892 were preserved in cold storage for exhibition, not only in our own but in foreign countries. Thus France has sent us several hundred varieties of deciduous fruits, her display of pears being the largest, and one of the best on exposition. Russia has forwarded a collection gathered from every region of the empire, even from the frozen plains of Siberia, while from the tropics came varieties that could not elsewhere be seen. From northern Africa came a consignment, and New South Wales installed [440] the first shipment of fresh fruit sent from Australia to the United States.

About the middle of March several barrels of apples, a bushel of pears, and a crate of grapes were placed on board a sailing vessel bound from Melbourne to San Francisco, and then forwarded by rail to Chicago, where they were installed in good condition. Other shipments of fruit were made from Australia under more favorable conditions; and by Atlantic steamers, with their cold-storage compartments, oranges, lemons, figs, and other fruits were brought from Naples and elsewhere in southern Europe. Thus the pomological department at Jackson park represents the conditions and products of the principal fruit-growing regions of the world. Several countries which could not furnish a complete exhibit substituted wax and plaster models. Germany excelling all others in this respect, with imitations so perfect that it is almost impossible to detect them. In drawings and paintings are also placed before the visitor the native fruits of several lands.

A liberal but divided space in the northwestern section of the hall is devoted to the citrus display of California, one that is in all respects worthy of the golden state, collected and grouped with the utmost care, and renewed as occasion requires, the waste of fruit from decay and damage amounting, in this and other exhibits, to hundreds of pounds a day. On tables, in piles, in pyramids, and in more complex forms, one of them reproducing the orthodox liberty bell, are oranges and lemons of all varieties, gathered from many portions of the state, from San Diego county, adjoining the Mexican border, almost to the boundary line of Oregon. Among the scores of specimens are the best that Riverside and other citrus belts could send, including Washington and other navels, Mediterranean sweets, St. Michaels, and Malta bloods; while of lemons there are the Sicilian, Lisbon, Bonnie Brae, and Eureka.

At the opposite end of the section the citrus belt of southern California is represented by a tower of oranges, thirty feet high, its base of navels and other of the larger species, above which are the smaller varieties, its top surmounted by an eagle, and encircled with rows of lemons, fashioned in the shape of a cornice. In the open court beyond are orange and lemon groves in miniature, with other exhibits illustrating California methods and products by practical results. Add to this the peaches, nectarines, and apricots; the cherries, and plums; the apples, pears, quinces, grapes, figs, olives, and berries which California had to show during the season of their fruitage, and no wonder that the display from the golden state was to the majority of exposition sight-seers almost in the nature of a revelation.

Fruit-growing, as I have said, is every year assuming larger proportions in southern and central California, where, from the foothills of the sierra to the shores of the ocean, there are large areas adapted to this industry. Many thousands of acres, before devoted [441] to cereals, are being planted as orchards and vineyards, while in quality, as in quantity, the yield is steadily improving, for inferior fruits are almost unsalable, either in local or other markets. It was not until 1869 that eastward shipments by rail became possible; but since that year, notwithstanding almost prohibitive rates of transportation, the volume of production has increased from thirty to fifty-fold, and with the promise of still more remarkable development, awaiting only the advent of competing railroads. In 1870 less than 1,000 tons of fruit, in whatever form, were forwarded to eastern points; in 1880 the total did not exceed 3,000 tons; for 1890 shipments of fresh fruit amounted to 52,500 tons, and of dried fruit, 33,000 tons. For the three years ending with 1889 the trade with New York alone increased in more than ten-fold ratio; in Chicago almost as much, and in either city California fruits were hawked around their streets, and were for sale at moderate prices in hundreds of stores and booths. Said the New York Sun; �The products of Pacific slope orchards and vineyards are now competing with our own fruit products, and beating them out of their boots, so to speak, in spite of the 3,000 miles of disadvantage under which Californians labor in comparison with local growers.�

Between the two divisions of the Californian exhibits are scores of long tables covered with groups of apples, including the russet, Ben Davis, Northern Spy, and their kindred, from all the states. New York and Michigan occupy the central spaces, flanked by Wisconsin and New Jersey. �York state� apples have ever been favorites, even with western people, and assuredly her 110 varieties displayed in Horticultural hall will not dispel the charm, especially her Newton pippins and Hudson river apples. Of excellent quality also are her grapes, pears, strawberries, and other fruits, smaller than western descriptions, but, as is claimed, superior as to flavor, texture, and durability, the rich western soil favoring rapid growth and bulk at the expense of finer qualities. Minnesota and Illinois are grouped beyond New York, the latter occupying a tasteful pavilion, divided into sections, in which are displayed her berries arranged according to locality. Iowa also maintains her reputation as a fruit-growing region. Tokay and other grapes, and the large orange cling peaches of the western states are also on exposition, some of the latter almost as large as summer squashes, preserved in liquids, and displayed in glass jars.

[442] � The strongest feature in Missouri�s exhibit was her choice collections of peaches, berries, and apples, the famous olden fruit farm of Howell county, and other orchards of the Ozark mountain country sending frequent consignments of peaches in season, while, earlier during the terms of the Fair, southern Missouri sent strawberries of wonderful size and flavor. In her exhibition of fresh fruits, replenished and varied throughout the season, Missouri was a competitor with such states as Delaware, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa. There were also 1,000 glass jars of all sizes and shapes, filled with nearly all the fruits, berries, and vegetables of the temperate zone, preserved in antiseptic fluids, so that for several years some of them have almost retained their natural appearance. Arkansas shows many specimens of apples, pears, peaches, plums, and small fruits, all of excellent quality, and especially her apples, whose flavor and staying qualities are strongly commended.

A theme of almost universal comment are the exhibits of the far western states, apart from that of California. From Colorado come berries as bright and fresh as her own mountain air, with fruits preserved in alcohol, and wax models, taken in facsimile during the autumn of 1892, of more than 600 specimens of apples, peaches, pears, quinces, and melons. Idaho sends her preserved grapes, prunes, egg-plant, radishes, and other fruits and vegetables, some of which were raised at an elevation of six thousand feet above sea level. Oregon, Washington, and Montana have thousands of green and preserved specimens of apples, apricots, cherries, peaches, pears, plums, prunes, grapes, and berries. The Oregon and Washington booths were somewhat of a surprise; for even among the more intelligent class of visitors, many were not aware that either state could send anything more than samples of their farm products, fish, and lumber. Certain it is that few expected to see here such clusters of Black Hamburg grapes as Oregon sent, some of the bunches weighing nearly a dozen pounds. Her orchard fruits are also of choicest quality, and especially her apples, which, for thirty years or more, have been largely raised for export.

Adjacent to the Oregon pavilion is the Florida section, where he who is so disposed may compare the fruits of the furthest south with those of the far northwest. At the entrance is an archway of russet oranges, [443] and near by a tall cocoa-nut tree raises its head almost to the ceiling, around its trunk an assortment of nuts, with portions of the shell removed. The walls are lined with gigantic palm fronds, beneath which are rows of cocoanuts and pineapple plants, the latter in all stages of growth and bearing. By Florida were sent the first peaches to the Exposition, with a small collection of early tomatoes, cucumbers, and other fruits and vegetables out of season in the north and west, all the result of private enterprise, for there was no state appropriation for any purpose.

The artificial fruits of Germany are wonderful specimens of artistic manipulation. Crisp lettuces, large apples, somewhat speckled, juicy pears, plums, and berries, parsnips and turnips � cut through here and there to show the interior structure � and other fruits and vegetables are spread before the visitor in such perfect imitation that the closest inspection almost fails to detect them.

Near the California orange tower is a collection of Italian fruits, mainly shipped from Palermo, and opposite is a small display of apples and pears from New South Wales. When their history is known, certain red and yellow apples from the Australian colony attract much attention; for the latter have traveled hither via the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco, and the former by way of the Suez Canal, the Mediterranean, London, and New York. Both were shipped from the same orchard near Sydney, and those which crossed the Pacific arrived at the Fair two weeks earlier than the consignment forwarded by the Isthmus route.

North of the main western portal is the Canadian exhibit, her specimens of berries and other fruits, fresh and preserved, arranged in four pavilions, and on triple rows of tables, the province of Ontario making the largest display. While preserved fruits form the bulk of the collection, the apples, peaches, and berries grown in the garden region enclosed by the great lakes are as fresh as though shipped from Michigan or Wisconsin. Quebec has also a moderate exhibit, and Nova Scotia and Prince Edward�s Island prove their capability for producing the finest of fruits. Among the apples from British Columbia are some choice specimen from the orchards of Lord Aberdeen, now governor-general of Canada.

[445] � Seeds, vegetables, horticultural implements, dried and canned fruits, nuts, and other articles from the United States and foreign lands are mainly grouped in the northern section of Horticultural hall. In a corner adjoining the display of fresh fruits the New Jersey firm, mentioned as contributing one of the most extensive and attractive exhibits in the floricultural department, erected a miniature fortress of seeds, contained in glass cases, and in thousands of paper envelopes. The summit of the glacis is covered with plume-like grasses, and beyond are rows of vegetables raised from the seed. Canada�s space near by presents an unpretentious group of vegetables, fresh and canned, preserved fruits, and pickles. Thence eastward is the German collection of seeds, models of vegetables, garden ornaments, lawn mowers, and all kinds of garden apparatus. Three of the largest Erfurt and Quendlinburgh houses are represented in the hall, and another firm calling itself Purveyor to the royal Prussian and Ducal Coburgh-Gotha courts makes an extensive exhibit. One of the Erfurt establishments has on the screens of its pavilion a series of paintings symbolic of horticultural pursuits, with tasteful scrolls and cornucopias, gods and goddesses, plumb of aspect, and flowers, fruits, and vegetables in every stage of growth.

The New York firm of Henderson and company has a large assortment of seeds, and, in the form of a mound, reproduces in papier mache all kinds of market garden products. On the summit of the mound is a model of its establishment, with workmen at the windows, elevators running to and from the several floors, and customers passing in long procession through the entrance way. Henry A. Dreer of Philadelphia, and J. c. Vaughan of Chicago and New York, have also attractive exhibits of seeds, and there are smaller collections from Ohio, New Jersey, and Utah exhibitors.

Many American, French, and German establishments show, either in the form of illustrations and pamphlets, or as actual exhibits, the latest garden appliances, both for useful and ornamental purposes. There are lawn mowers of regular size and in miniature, motionless, and engaged in cutting imaginary grass from imaginary lawns. Rustic vases, stands, seats, monuments, seals, alligators, and other hideous beasts supposed to add to the attraction of garden landscpaes, are also profusely displayed. From Indiana a Bedford firm sends a number of ornamental pieces composed entirely of stone, its works being in the very midst of limestone quarries. Some of the figures are works of art, as those by Leonard Volk, the Chicago sculptor, and the typical gypsy, both of which are on the roof of the pavilion. Adjoining this another Indiana firm has samples of wire network for fences and gates. Its pavilion is of wire, the square open-work pillars trellised with vines, and within the enclosure are piles of manufactured articles.

The French exhibit in this connection, occupying a narrow strip along the northern wall, consists largely of literature devoted to the subject, with the advertisements of houses which furnish fancy baskets, seeds, twine, and all kinds of apparatus for heating conservatories, and hot-houses. A Troyes firm has a collection of knives, shears, and pruning hooks, some of them in fantastic shapes, and suggestive rather of surgical instruments than the purposes for which they were fashioned.

A liberal space in this vicinity is occupied by California products, displayed in the form of pavilions fashioned entirely of canned fruits, towers of almonds and walnuts, and tier upon tier of boxes filled with [446] prunes and raisins, the last representing an industry whose growth may be inferred from the increase of pack, from 6,000 boxes in 1873 to more than 1,000,000 boxes in 1893. Of excellent quality are the prunes, and other dried fruits of Idaho, and the preserved fruits, jellies, and pickles of Kansas, and Colorado. Even the New Mexican Pueblos, the oldest of our native races, were imbued with the spirit of the day, erecting a little booth across which are printed words of greeting, and placing therein bottles and jars of preserved fruits.

New Mexico has also sent us as a work of art, a reproduction of the Horticultural building itself, in the shape of a model in silver filigree, more than 100 pounds of metal being used in its construction. In this connection may be mentioned another exhibition of fine metal and filigree work, a case filled with wreaths and flowers, closely resembling imitations in wax, displaying the skill of a German artisan. The Greek pavilion lies opposite the one which contains the products of Ohio cider presses. Its contents consist mainly of the figs of Attica, the Corinthian grape or currant, and other dried fruits from mainland and Peleponnese.

Among the gallery exhibits may first of all be mentioned a tower constructed of cases of English walnuts, forming a portion of the California collections; but here also are booths filled with the canned and dried fruits of many climes. A considerable space is occupied by the San Francisco firm of Lusk and company, in whose pavilion, tastefully decorated with silken banners, are displayed all the canned fruits of the golden state. In a corner of the gallery is shown a very simple device, which is interesting many fruit growers, and has been adopted by not a few. It consists of a long rod, with shears, and a canvas tube attached, so that be merely pulling a cord the stem of an apple or orange is cut, and the fruit falls into the receptacle placed beneath.

Pecans, neatly packed in cases, with photographs of Pecan bayou, as well as of the Swinden pecan orchards at Brownwood, call attention to a prominent Texan industry. Among other illustrations, scattered throughout the gallery is one of a special train of canned fruit shipped from San Jose, California, and elsewhere are views of the public gardens of Bremen, and the villas of Nice. Except for its well appointed restaurants, these almost complete the contents of the gallery, or such, at least, as here need special mention.

Thus, as briefly as the nature of my subject would permit, I have described the more salient and many of the minor features in the department of Horticulture, an attractive display [447] to all classes of visitors, and to many the most attractive in all the wide grounds of Jackson park. For the skillful grouping and management of all these varied and varying collections, credit is due, among others, to the chief of the department, John M. Samuels, and to John Thorpe, Charles Wright, and H. M. La Rue, superintendents, n the order named, of the bureaus of floriculture, pomology, and viticulture.

In conclusions a brief description may be added as to the outdoor exhibits in connection with this department, its conservatories, hot-houses, and grounds, with some further mention of the thousands of horticultural and other specimens, contributed in lavish profusion from every quarter of the world. During the autumn of 1892, palms, ferns, nursery trees, and decorative and aquatic plants arrived by the car-load from the United States, from Spanish-American countries, from Europe, Australia, and Japan, until winter put a stop to further shipments. Almost before the snows had melted, the greenhouses near the Horticultural building presented signs of life, and by the middle of April at least 200,000 plants had been received at the conservatories.

In early winter thousands of Chinese primroses, hanging in dainty groups of variegated pink, white, blue, and red, represented the floral contributions of England, Germany, America, France, and Italy. Then came the Persian violets, richer even than the Chinese blossoms, issuing in regal splendor from the enfolding bulb. During the lenten season, the cineraria came forth in innumerable clusters, ranging in color from the purest white to the deepest purple. Crimson, yellow, bronze, and lavender calceolaria also revealed their beauties under the feeble rays of the sun, side by side with the English primrose, and the German hyacinth. Japanese ferns, trained in grotesque imitations of beast and fish, European pansies, and geraniums of many varieties helped to complete the opening chapter in the horticultural annals of the Exposition.

During the later spring, large beds of pansies skirted the Horticultural hall, and blossoms by hundreds of thousands were massed between it and the banks of the lagoon. Here were contributions not only from New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and other states, but from Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Belgium. Begonias, cannas, zinnias, and phlox flashed their bright hues around the building, these and other floral displays giving color to the home of the Fair.

In truth there was barely a week, between the months of May and October, that failed to reveal a fresh series of flowers and blossoms, rhododendrons, hyacinths, primroses, tulips, and pansies in May; roses and lilies in June; sweet peas, peonies, tea roses, clematis, and begonias in July; hollyhocks, carnations, dahlias, asters, [448] verbenas, hydrangeas in August and September; and chrysanthemums, orchids, and various flowering annuals later in the season. The grounds adjacent to the hall, the banks of the lagoon, and the Wooded Island opposite, were mainly selected for the outdoor display of flowers, which was not only the herald of the Fair but continued throughout its term. The competitive exhibit of cannas, in which New York and Pennsylvania were rivals, was the finest ever witnessed in the United States, including more than 5,000 plants, though Pennsylvania restricted her collection entirely to French varieties.

The neighboring grounds, surrounding the Woman�s building, were lavishly but tastefully decorated by France, and here was well represented the floricultural art of this nation of artists, fostered, as it is, by the Jardin des Plants and the gardens of the Tuilleries, the Luxembourg, and the Museum.

But it was upon the Wooded Island that the richest of the floral exhibits were concentrated. Here is a resting place, with winding walks, shady nooks, and picturesque summer houses covered with vines, with shrubbery and flower-beds at every turn, and with willows drooping gracefully toward the waters, above which sea-gulls, and other aquatic birds are flitting to and fro. Three bridges of the Venetian order connect with the terraces fronting the Horticultural building, and with the southern shore of the lagoon. One of them, of Japanese design, leads from the mainland to a quaint structure at the northern extremity of the island. Here many visitors linger before this so-called temple of Hoodo, or wander through a garden laid out with rare ingenuity. Here was the weird looking, long-petalled chrysanthemum, the national flower of Japan, and here bloomed the fragrant rose which the Japanese call wichuriana, before a stranger to this country. In this locality, more than in any other, the visitor was introduced to new and unusual forms of floral life.

The Wooded Island was the special home of the rose; at its southern extremity was a gorgeous bed of [449] these flowers more than an acre in extent, and near by blossomed fields of rhododendrons and lilies from Belgium, Holland, Great Britain, and the United States. The rhododendrons contributed by the Horticultural society of Ghent were remarkably beautiful, fully maintaining the reputation of that city as a floricultural centre. The roses came from almost every country in the world, forming the most complete collection ever gathered together, while honeysuckles and other vines were trained over the surrounding fences, appearing like solid masses of blossoms and foliage. Germany covered half an acre with her cheerful garden flowers. The holly trees and yews of England were not far away; and Pennsylvania and New York, California, France, and Austria, planted specimens from their fields and forests on this cosmopolitan island. But there was also a distinctly American exhibit, in the form of a magnificent bed of sunflowers on the highest point of the island, their hardy faces hanging in clusters of thousands, and dispensing afar their homely fragrance.

He who is so disposed may wander over the bridge connecting, toward the south, with a smaller island, and there for a moment linger over the picturesque reproduction of an American hunter�s camp, and the diminutive bark cabin of an Australian pioneer. The former is the headquarters of the Boone and Crockett club, an organization of prominent sportsmen throughout the United States, whose object is to preserve the large game of the country, especially that of the Yellowstone or National Park. The structure is built of rough logs, and within, over the rude [450] fireplace, is the skull of a grizzly bear. On the floor are deer skins, and over the doorway are the broad, spreading antlers of an elk. Woolen blankets, skins, saddles, and lassos are strewn carelessly over rude tables, bunks, and chairs; field glasses and weapons lean against the rough walls, or are fastened to them; a pile of fuel is neatly stacked in a corner of the room; in short, there is nothing omitted from the furniture and equipments of a hunter�s cabin. The camp is under charge of Elwood Hofer, who, for the occasion, was relieved from his task of capturing animals in the Yellowstone, or National Park, for the Smithsonian Institution.

Though officially classed with Agriculture, the Forestry exhibits will here be described in connection with Horticulture, to which department they would appear to be more akin. Though foreign lands are also represented, the specimens are gathered mainly from the United States, whose forests, as it would seem, are not destined to remain much longer on the face of the earth, for apart from other uses, some 40,000,000,000 cubic feet are annually converted into lumber, representing an industry which keeps busy about 100,000 establishments and several hundred thousand men, with a value estimated at $800,000,000 a year.

Of all the Exposition structures the Forestry building is, more than any other, symbolical of the purposes for which it was designed, forming, as it does, an integral portion, and perhaps the most interesting portion of the exhibits which it contains. A plain, unpretentious edifice, 500 by 200 feet, and with its main facade fronting on the lake, in style of architecture it is of the rustic order, its roof thatched with bark, its sides of wooden slabs from which the bark has been removed, and its entrances fashioned in various kinds of wood.

[451] - But the most unique and attractive feature in this temple of Forestry is the colonnade which supports the roof of the spacious veranda, formed of the trunks of trees twenty-five feet in height, but otherwise of different proportions, arranged in groups of three, and with the largest of each triplet in the centre. About thirty states are here represented, and the flags and coats of arms of participating nations and commonwealths appear above the cornices of the veranda. A passing examination of these columnar trunks shows that the larger specimens are of red cedar, Douglas fir, bull and white pine, western hemlock, the black spruce, the bald cypress, the tulip poplar, the white oak, and the green ash. The principal minor specimens are the Ohio buckeye, the Sitka spruce, the western larch, the red alder, the arbor vitae, red oaks, aspens, and yellow and white birches. Here are represented the forests of Canada, of the east, the south, the Pacific slope with its far northwest, including all the wooded regions from the Arctic ocean to the gulf of Mexico.

Among the most beautiful of the columns which flank the great trees are the silver maples which once grew on the banks of western rivers, or on the Atlantic coast from Maine to Georgia, and the red maples of the swamps, which still are found at intervals from Canada to the gulf. More delicate still are the birches, for the birch is essentially a tree of the north. Carrying out the idea of displaying the primary forms of forest wealth in the structure of the building, its sides are composed of slabs, the frames of doors and windows being sections of logs with the bark removed. From the roofs of the verandas depend borders, or cornices, fashioned from limbs and saplings into simple geometric figures. Bark covers the roofs of both verandas and main structure, a rustic fence surrounding the latter. In the erection of the building wooden pins were substituted for nails and iron bolts, for the design of the architect, Charles B. Atwood, was to illustrate the substantial and economical work which can be done by American builders with wood alone. In carrying out this idea, and in making the building itself the primary exhibit of the department, about $100,000 was expended, and more than 2,500,000 feet of timber were consumed.

[452] - A superficial examination of the Forestry building fails to disclose any main portal, for all the doors are square, and of similar pattern. Once within, however, the visitor discovers a spacious vestibule fronting the east, which may be considered as the principal entrance. Here is an illustration of the decorative qualities of yellow pine and cypress from the Southern Lumber Manufacturers� association, the sections of wood forming the square pillars and panels of the dado, the round columns above, the rich border of cypress, and the ceilings themselves, being highly polished, and dressed so as to show all the details of graining.

Passing thence, the visitor finds most of the massive exhibits fronting the vestibule, or grouped in its neighborhood. Around him are the products of the forests of Michigan, Wisconsin, Washington, West Virginia, North Carolina, and Missouri, and before him gigantic sections of pine and hemlock from Canada, and slabs of polished woods from the wilds of Australia, while in the very centre of the hall is a massive monument containing specimens from all the exhibiting states and countries. Scores of huge blocks and polished sections of wood are arranged around the mammoth redwood from California, which has carried away the honors of the entire display, an arrow and the head of a brass tack upon its face indicating the diameter of the tree at the time of the event which the Exposition celebrates. Another object which attracts almost as much attention is one of the axes which England�s premier uses so vigorously upon the trees of his Hawaarden estate.

To he northeast of the vestibule are the evidences of Michigan�s forest wealth. A rustic gateway gives entrance to the exhibit, the cabinet which incloses it being highly polished, and neatly paneled bird�s eye maple, oak, elm, walnut, and other varieties entering into its construction. An odd conceit, and one deftly executed, is that of placing [453] in the cornices several transverse sections of small logs, with the bark only removed, hatchets, saws, and compasses carved out of wood appearing at various points, and completing the decorative scheme. Over the main entrance is the symbol of the state, two stags engaged in combat with an eagle between them, and specimens of pine, cedar, and poplar are contributed by her experiment station. The furniture factories of Grand Rapids and other cities of southern Michigan find in the specimens of walnut, oak, maple, and pine here displayed, one of the secrets of their success. In a small photograph gallery within the pavilion are shown the enemies of Michigan woods, one view depicting the ravages of the web-worm upon the poplars of a city avenue, every leaf being stripped from the branches, while upon the opposite side of the street is a row of flourishing maples exempt from the plague. In a corner of this section is a rough fireplace made of logs, and in the centre a miniature fortress of gnarled trees. Various forms of manufacture are also represented, as sulphite fibre, basket-work, and wooden-ware.

Wisconsin has erected a neat pavilion built of her native woods, with six varieties in each of the twenty hexagonal columns which support the birch bark roof. The floor is of cherry and birch planks, and between the pillars of two-score blocks of timber which have a commercial value. In the centre of the structure are logs of pine, oak, and other varieties, with smaller sections arranged on stands. In branches and seeds are also represented the pine, spruce, birch, and hemlock forests of northern Wisconsin, as well as the cultivated elms and other ornamental trees of the southern portion of the state. Upon the walls and scattered throughout the specimens are many colored pictures and photographs depicting scenes in logging camps, saw and lumber mills, showing some of the largest loads of logs which have ever been hauled from western forests, one of them twenty-one feet high and twenty in width.

A score of people might stand on one of the mammoth disks of cedar which Washington has laid upon the floor; and this is by no means the best that the forests of the evergreen state can do, though here as in her own building is an imposing display. Missouri woods include many varieties, with rough sections of trees and others dressed and polished, among which may be noticed the delicate graining and tinting of the holly, aspen, yellow cypress, and silver maple. This exhibit is inclosed by a wall of tree trunks cut in regulation lengths, including about 150 massive specimens.

In an adjoining section, the forests of West Virginia, are displayed in a collection of photographs. Forests of pine, spruce, chestnut, beech, oak, cherry, and black gum, and logging scenes in the mountains, and along the rivers, are all represented by the artist, and there is a circular tower of woods with gigantic poplars and tulips at the base. A lumber company shows hardwood capable of taking a beautiful finish; a Parkersburg mill company has an exhibit of brush handles and wainscoting, and the Standard Oil company one of the barrels used in its export business.

North Carolina has an extensive and varied display, rugged specimens and photographs of timber trees conveying an excellent idea of her forest growth. Here also is a large display of nuts, seeds, cones, and bark, and a small collection of balsam, turpentine, [454] and other products of the pine, for which the state is noted. The exhibit is arranged in a series of cabinets, the bases of which are composed of native woods, and the upper portions of large photographs of the forests from which they were cut, some of them 7,000 feet above the level of the sea. A valuable feature in this section is the views which illustrate the results of scientific forestry, as conducted on the Asheville estate of George W. Vanderbilt. In one of the corners is the graceful form of the palmetto tree, the symbol of the sister state, which is not represented in this section of the Fair.

Among the many interesting groups lying south of the main vestibule are the Jesup collection of American woods, and the exhibits of California and New York. The Jesup collection is a duplication of the cabinet in the New York museum of natural history, similar in scope to the display of native woods in the Government building. Each of the 430 specimens is labeled with an outline map, showing the area in which the tree is indigenous, together with a description of its characteristics. Here, for instance, one learns that the hemlock belt ranges from an altitude of 2,700 feet in British Columbia to 10,000 feet in the sierra of central California; that the Douglas fir grows from 200 to 300 feet in height, and that it is the most generally distributed timber tree of the Pacific coast; that the arbor vitae flourishes best in the swamps of the north, and the cottonwood on the banks of the Ohio river, and that he balm of Gilead species has as its territory Canada, the United States westward to Colorado, and the entire northwest as far as the Arctic ocean.

In the adjacent exhibit of California the redwood, laurel, walnut, maple, elm, locust, madrona, and the so-called big trees stand row by row like gigantic sentinels, their faces polished, and displaying all the beauties that timber can be made to assume. To many visitors these are somewhat of a revelation, for here were for the first time shown to them the excellencies of California woods for cabinet and ornamental purposes. Here also are festoons of cones, burls of curious shape, and an unadorned section of a redwood that might serve for an ordinary table.

The New York state exhibit, which occupies a large space in the eastern portion of the hall, presents a striking illustration of the forest growth of the empire state. In revolving frames are thin sections of her trees, with their seeds, bark, and leaves, and within each frame are photographs, one showing the tree from which the [455] different parts were taken, and another a portion of the trunk. Among the collection are such varieties as the Norway pine, the English cherry, hickory, spruce, balsam, balm of Gilead, fir, tamarack, larch, hawthorn, cedar, sycamore, black walnut, poplar, hackberry, birch, elm, ash, maple, and chestnut. Many of these are also reproduced in photographs, together with landscape scenes adjacent. Another feature in the New York exhibit is that which shows the texture of different woods, and different portions of the same wood. Sometimes the specimens do not exceed the twelve-hundredth part of an inch, and when placed against the light, not only show forms of geometric combination but reflect colors of exquisite tint. When examined under a microscope even greater wonders are revealed.

In the southern section of the hall Connecticut has a rustic booth of cherry wood, its specimens of burl oak, walnut, pine, ash, hickory, etc., in sections of which one side is polished, and with seeds, foliage, and twigs as adjuncts of the display. No less artistic is the exhibit of Massachusetts, both of them demonstrating that while eastern woods are of smaller size, the grain is finer, and the timber more durable than in western varieties. A New Jersey firm in this vicinity shows some of the uses of eastern spruce and poplar in a group of tubs, pails, bowls, measures, and pans, pressed from the pulp of these woods, and said to wear like metal, besides being odorless and seamless.

In this vicinity Colorado places a giant poplar cut from the first tree planted under her timber culture act of 1877. Great firs, spruces, and other varieties form the corner pillars and base of the booth, while above are the trunks of such trees as the black-thorn, dog-wood, hackberry, wild cherry, black cottonwood, dwarf birch and maple, hazelnut and mountain mahogany, some of them taken from the canons of the foot hills, and others from the mountains thousands of feet above. In a series of frames are sprigs from the yellow and fox tail pine, the black birch, red fir, cedar, sage brush, box elder, and quaking aspen; also a row of jars filled with buffalo berries, wild plums, choke cherries, and seeds of [456] the Douglas fir and balsam. The bulk of the silver state�s exhibit comes from her agricultural college.

Close to the Connecticut pavilion are the exhibits of Florida, Arizona, and Idaho, the woods of the peninsula state being mostly furnished by railroad companies. Those of Arizona and Idaho consist mainly of pine, the former state asserting that while she has been called a treeless desert, there are within her domain 2,000,000 acres of pine untouched by the woodman�s axe.

In the southern portion of the Horticultural hall are grouped the individual exhibits, one corner being filled by a mammoth redwood wine tank, constructed within the building by a San Francisco firm. Across the way is a pyramid of tubs, pails, and other wooden ware from a Chicago house, and near by is a large assortment of wooden knives, forks, rolling pins, scoops, bowls, and medallions. A pulp and paper company shows in a series of jars, with explanatory labels, the processes through which spruce chips pass, from the crude material to the bleached pulp, and to colored rolls of paper. Not far away are booths in which is shown cork in various devices, some of them approaching the artistic, such as pictures made of the shavings and other fine sections, one of the exhibitors reproducing St. Peter�s and picturesque scenes on the Rhine, with remarkable fidelity. Among other exhibits are trees in their natural state, and trees of which nothing is left but their outer coverings, or the portions from which the cork is cut. There is cork piled up in slabs, like cord wood, and cork tables, towers, and pavilions.

Near these are specimens of wood-turning, in the form of snakes coiled for attack, billiard balls, charms, watch chains, stair and chair ornaments, flowers, and nearly everything that has been accomplished in the way of decorative wood-turning. A choice and varied display of foreign woods is that of the E. D. Albro company of Cincinnati. Upon a large platform, above which are the flags of many lands, is grouped an array of polished slabs, such as are used in cabinet work. Surrounding the platform are rows of upright posts, cut from valuable timber, as the ebony of Ceylon, the red Brazilian tulip, the [457] rich brown lignum vitae, the fine grained and yellowish shittim from Palestine, and the Amazonian cocobola, rosy red, and with patches of gold near the bark. Piled high upon the platform are slabs of mottled brown Persian walnut, yellow Brazilian satin-wood, the Turkish ash, and the white mahogany of Mexico with its delicate cream color. Near by is a collection of implements, such as are used in lumber regions, and adjacent to these a group of household appliances in structural form, manufactured from the aromatic cedar of Virginian forests. A Detroit firm displays a large plank from a California redwood, with the oil finish of which it makes a specialty. A Chicago establishment has a pavilion composed of many varieties of wood, in the finishing of which its varnishes are used, and a manufacturer of wooden faucets, saturated with india rubber, has a structure built of bark, with arched doorway whose keystone is of cork.

The northeastern quarter of the Forestry building contains, in addition to the exhibits already described, those of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, Virginia, Louisiana, and Kentucky. The display of Louisiana, whose forests are yet almost untouched, forcibly illustrates one of the great resources of the southern states. The pavilion is of cypress, pine, oak, ash, and other native woods, surmounted with a cupola, and with pillars and ceiling handsomely carved and inlaid. In the decorative scheme are reproduced the leaves, flowers, and branches of Louisiana trees, and within are represented in various forms her sturdy oaks, her lofty pines, her graceful willows, her rapid-growing chinas, and stately beeches and ash, with the creamy-blossomed magnolia, the fan-like palmetto, the wide-spreading elm, the moss-hung cypress, and the odorous cedar. Some of the specimens are in the form of large square blocks, one side retaining the bark, and the other showing the wood stripped of its outer covering, with samples of hewn timber, such as reveal the beauties of the polished surface. Upon the blocks are partially manufactured articles, illustrating the uses, commercial and ornamental, to which the wood may be put. An interesting series of maps and charts explains how the timber is cut and floated along an intricate system of bayous to the saw-mills on the Mississippi.

]459] - Virginia has but a scant display of forest woods, while Kentucky is somewhat of a surprise. The entrance to the latter section is through a hollow segment of a sycamore tree, sixteen feet in diameter, which grew in the neighborhood of Fairview, the birthplace of Jefferson Davis. To the right is a huge yellow poplar; to the left a great white oak, and in a series of pyramids are native woods in 150 varieties, while in a relief map are shown the timber areas, the logging streams, and other matters connected with the lumber interests.

Minnesota has also an interesting exhibit in her rustic pavilion surrounded by a fence upon which are perched in life-like form, birds, gophers, and other specimens of her fauna. The display is of an instructive rather than a massive character, such as might have been expected from her boundless forests, and the numerous industries connected therewith. A few blocks of pine there are, bearing carved stars upon their faces; but elsewhere are only simple specimens of cultivated trees. A section of European larch is shown, which is said to have grown further north than any tree of its kind. A block of Minneapolis cottonwood is historic, for it was hewn from the first tree planted in that city, nearly forty years ago. All the native varieties are on exposition, and among transplanted species are the Russian mulberry, the Lombardy poplar, the Scotch and Austrian pine, the Norway spruce, the diamond willow, and the European larch.

In connection with the Minnesota display may be mentioned her State Forestry association, by which the exhibit was organized. To this institution credit is due for its efforts in calling attention to the wholesale destruction of forests, and the climatic and other evils resulting therefrom. It has also repeatedly urged upon congress the appointment of a board of forestry commissioners for protective purposes, and to promote the science of arboriculture.

Among the purposes of the Forestry department of the Exposition is to collect information from every quarter as to the amount of valuable standing timber, the effect of forest destruction on climate and soil, and the results which have followed the adoption of various timber culture acts. It is intended to demonstrate the wealth of our forests, ascertain the ratio of consumption and destruction, and the efforts made to counteract this destruction, through the preservation of timber tracts, and the planting of new areas. This is accomplished not only in the exhibits themselves, but in maps, photographs, reports, and literature devoted to the science of forestry. Nebraska and North [460] Dakota especially demonstrate the benefits of tree-culture, and one of the most prominent objects in the former section is a life-sized portrait of J. Sterling Morton, to whom Arbor day owes its origin, for many years a resident of that state, and now secretary of the national department of agriculture. The Nebraska pavilion is of the rustic order, with a mammoth cottonwood disk at one of the entrances, and on arches and pillars, composed of cottonwood, linden, honey locust, ash, and elm, are sprigs of green grown from the trunks since they were placed in Forestry hall. One of the curiosities here displayed is a horseshoe embedded in the heart of a big cottonwood hung on one of its limbs a dozen years ago, and imprisoned by its growth.

In the huge logs cut from planted trees exhibited by North Dakota, is shown what may be done in the way of arboriculture on prairie soil. A thick section of bark forms the back of a chair, the body of which is hewn from the trunk, and the various specimens are labeled with the ages of the trees, and the conditions under which they are planted. Near at hand is the square pavilion in which Ohio presents a complete display of medicinal plants, with more than eighty specimens of native forest trees in the form of twigs, leaves, flowers, fruit, and section of trunk and bark, in the rough and polished; the latter profusely illustrating the graining of woods suitable for turning, cabinet work and interior finish. The walls of this structure are covered on both sides with framed specimens of herbs, bark, twigs, flowers, fruit, and foliage, the pillars forming samples of rough wood, and polished slabs the panels below the cornice.

At the northern end of the Forestry building Pennsylvania shows several hundred varieties of her native woods, together with a model saw-mill, with logs being drawn up its front incline, and in the yards behind piles of finished lumber, while on the roof are rows of water barrels as a safeguard against fire. Into the Oregon booth adjacent, the visitor enters between huge sections of yellow fir and spruce, the latter cut from a tree 305 feet high, and 16 at the base. Within, the commission has a beautifully finished office, the side walls formed of polished planks of fir and spruce, contributed by the lumbering and mill companies of Astoria and Portland.

In the northwestern portion of the Forestry building is a collection of cedar, pine, oak, cherry, cottonwood, and other varieties from the territory of Utah, one that seems out of place, pushed aside, as it is, into a corner among the foreign exhibits; for here is a valuable exposition of what can be done in the way of tree-planting under most adverse conditions, and nowhere has arboriculture been conducted with more of system and success.

Almost in the centre of the western division of the hall are the exhibits of New South Wales and Canada. In the Australian collection are more than ninety varieties of hardwood, enclosed by upright planks, polished to a distance of six feet from the floor, and forming an excellent sample of antipodean workmanship. From the top of the booths float the flags of the Australasian colonies, and above all is an ensign bearing the inscription "Advance Australia," which is seen in many other departments of the Exposition. The outer wall is largely composed of the most valuable of Australian timbers; ironbarks, red, grey, white, and black; gum trees, spotted, grey, blue, red, and white; [461] blackbutt, woollybutt, and tallow wood. Some of them grow to a remarkable height, the blue gum-tree reaching an altitude of more than 300 feet. Piles of monster logs are trimmed to show the fibre of the tree, one of red cedar from New South Wales being nine feet long and six in diameter. There are also slabs of lignum vitae, river oak, rosewood, quince, black oak, sassafras, myrtle, and elm, with sprigs, bark and seeds of the same varieties, and in large photographs, hung upon the walls, are depicted the vast forests from which they were taken. Among the most valuable forest trees of New South Wales are the red gum and iron bark, one of the uses of which is illustrated in a large pile of railroad sleepers in the centre of the enclosure. A few feet away is a photographic reproduction of Sydney streets, representing the paving of one of her thoroughfares with pine blocks. Pictures of lumber mills and factories indicate the development of industries whereby the raw material is transformed into primary forms of manufacture.

Massive logs, blocks, and slabs of timber, heaped within and around the areas occupied by Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and the northwest territory display their wealth of pine, spruce, tamarack, cedar, balsam, birch, ash, maple, cherry, butternut, and other valuable woods. Quebec has a strong exhibit with many materials in the rough, and an exposition of the progressive stages in the manufacture of wood pulp. The entrance to her section is broad and square, composed of untrimmed logs, and a wigwam of bark in the rear is suggestive of the fragrance of her forests. Ontario and British Columbia have each a separate pavilion, the former showing a large picture frame inlaid with native woods, and a model of a church, also designed to display the variety of her forest products. British Columbia, whose pavilion is adorned with the heads of deer, has several of the largest sections of Douglas fir contained in the Forestry building.

In the French section, adjacent to the Canadian groups, are specimens of cabinet woods, cut veneers, osier work, and mosaics in wood, fashioned and grouped with the skill and taste of the Frenchman. In paintings, photographs, and maps are scenes among the picturesque regions of the French Alps, thickly clad with the pine forests which the government protects with zealous care. There is also an excellent display of conifers, and of such forest products as pitch, tar, and resin.

The German collection is in the northwestern portion of the hall, grouped, for whatever reason, among those of South American nations. This exhibit may be considered as the chief exponent of scientific forestry, as represented at the Fair. In maps are shown the forest distribution in many portions of the empire, the changes in their condition under forest management, during a large number of years, and the temperature of the soil within and without the forests. Instruments are displayed recording the temperature of the soil, and measuring the growth of trees, and there are models of logging railroads and tree-planting tools. In a chart prepared by the royal forest inspector of Bavaria is explained the nature of the soils in his territory, and the experimental station at Munich describes, in an object lesson, the ravages of the [462] pine moth, while the forestry schools connected with the universities contribute to the interest of the display. There are also specimens of tannin and tannin extracts, basket ware, cork, and that which is made of cork.

Germany may be considered as the mother of scientific forestry among European countries. In the seventeenth century arboriculture was studied by her learned men, and a hundred years later was being systematically taught in her colleges. Meanwhile the movement had spread to russia and Austria, and later, schools of forestry were also established in France and Spain, where before the application of remedial measures, many of the mountainous and wooded districts, formerly supporting large populations, had become almost deserted. Today, apart from the United States, the governments of all the leading countries in the world so manage their forest tracts as not only to insure their preservation, but to derive large revenues therefrom. France has 7,500,000 acres of national forest lands, and individuals nearly twice that area. One half of the 20,000,000 acres of Prussian timber lands produces a net annual income of $6,500,000, while Saxony�s 400,000 acres yield a return of more than $1,200,000. Here in truth are lessons which our own republic might profitably lay to heart.

In the Russian section, photographs and maps convey information as to the areas covered by forest lands, and also reproduce the imperial hunting parks, and the pavilions erected thereon. Leaves and seeds are displayed in mounted specimens, and the department of the Volga furnishes models of the ovens used for boiling pitch, and the rafts that convey it to centres of shipment or consumption. The St. Petersburg institute of forestry sends a collection of wooden implements from the peasantry, and the government of Kazan has a collection suggestive of the apiarian industries of that section of the empire.

Adjoining the New South Wales section, Mexico shows her woods, roots, fibres, dye-stuffs, and medicinal products. Four hundred different species of native woods are here displayed in the 2,000 polished specimens contained in a simple, rustic pavilion, its square main entrance, composed of disks, presenting a unique appearance. Resins, vegetable wax, copals, such as are used in the manufacture of varnish, and chewing gums, add variety and interest to the exhibit.

[463] � Brazil, the Argentine Republic, and Paraguay have remarkable collections of the woods used for ornamental purposes, together with barks, dyes, and medicinal herbs. The first has a large pavilion fashioned from small trunks and interlacing limbs, its main entrance in the form of an archway of Gothic architecture. Mahogany is a prominent feature, for this is one of the most valuable of Brazilian woods. Perhaps the finest of the cabinet woods are from the banks of the Tocantins, a tributary of the Amazon, a separate structure within the pavilion being composed of specimens from the forests of the great river. Among the collection are also samples of inlaid wood-work and basket-work.

Of somewhat similar character are the exhibits of the Argentine Republic and Paraguay, each having some 300 varieties of wood and many medicinal plants. In the Argentinian section is a crocodile dragging its unwieldy frame over a mahogany stump. The main collection of woods is in the form of a truncated pyramid, surmounted by an octagonal block of fragrant cedar.

Crossing the central nave we come to the exhibits of Spain, the Philippine Islands, and Cuba, the features in which are the huge square timbers of Cuban mahogany, and the Spanish collection of native woods and corks. Close to the northern portal of the Forestry hall is an enclosure surrounded by a high bamboo fence, within which are the choicest of Japanese forest products. A special effort is made to show the adaptability of the woods to receive a hard finish, and the delicacy of their graining. A rough, brown piece of wood, labeled cinnamora camphora, is a specimen of the tree from the roots of which the camphor of commerce is manufactured. There are also such articles as bamboo, rattan, and lacquer ware, sago-palm baskets, wooden water-pipe, palm-ropes, charcoal, seeds, sap, nuts, and sections of trees, great and small. The national department of agriculture and commerce sends a collective exhibit, comprising timber and planks, cabinet, ornamental, and fossil woods, barks and galls for tanning and dyeing, vegetable wax and resins, wood pulp for paper, and maps, plans, and illustrations of forest management. Colored pictures of various trees and flowers are shown, and upon the outer walls of the pavilion are depicted in graphic art wild scenes of the mountain forests.

Adjoining this, in the northwestern corner of the hall, is the Indian exhibit, where a British trading corporation displays samples of teak flooring and wood paving, railway wheel blocks, and specimens of fabrics dyed with cutch. Elsewhere are planks and slabs of vermilion and [464] padouk, and a large door made of teak, the original of which is in the royal palace of Mandalay, Burmah. Upon it are scores of carved figures and architectural forms, representing the city, the king, queen, ministers, and the guardian spirit of the municipality, with other mythological characters.

Embedded among the individual and state exhibits are those of Siam and Trinidad, the latter with samples of rich red purple heart, of balsam, mangrove, guava, redwood, Spanish ash, and bamboos, in many sizes, together with specimens of what has been accomplished in several lines of manufacture. In Siam�s collection, diagonally opposite from that of California, are more than 200 specimens of native woods, some of the smaller varieties in the form of baskets and rustic stands. The lordly teak is king of all, one solid slab, highly polished, being nine feet long, and six in breadth. Large sections of the taback and tamarind are also among the evidences of the forest wealth of Siam.

World�s Fair Miscellany � Adjacent to the Horticultural building are propagating houses and frames, where space is assigned to exhibitors for growing valuable plants such as will not bear transportation. Here also are illustrated modern improvements in construction; a Swiss inventor, for instance, erecting a green-house of glass bricks which he claims to be proof against cold, hail, and other destructive agencies, while others show their systems of steam heating, ventilation, etc. A considerable area is also used for replacing faded or injured specimens.

Both for heating and sprinkling ample provision was made. For the former purpose there were three boilers, each of 150 horse-power, and an elaborate system of engines, fans, and steam pipes, by which the temperature of the dome and the front curtains of the hall were adapted to the most delicate of tropical plants.

Near where the Midway plaisance joins Jackson Park are the nurseries for the propagation of trees and berries. A large plat on the northern side of the avenue is planted in California oranges, lemons, figs, apricots, peaches, prunes, grapes, etc., and on the opposite side France shows her careful and scientific methods of raising pears, peaches, grapes, and other fruits. There is also a large collection of evergreens in this locality, with a Wisconsin cranberry bog, showing all the processes of flooding, draining, and cultivating. Mexico has a section filled with characteristic plants; New York demonstrates how she would train grape vines, and a firm which manufactures nitrate of soda produces vigorous plants, nourished and stimulated by this fertilizer, side by side with others which, for want of it, appear as though sick unto death. In one corner of the nurseries is a mass of rank vegetation over which is a sign with the inscription, "What to Hit with the Hoe." Here are 125 varieties of weeds in actual growth, the exhibit being organized by a leading agricultural journal.

Among the curiosities of Agricultural hall are the American fly trap and the California pitcher plant. The leaves of the former are furnished with slender, comb-like teeth, the upper surface being set with slender hairs which are extremely sensitive. When touched they contract and draw the leaf together like a book, entrapping the fly and holding it fast as long as it is able to move; when the insect [465] is dead and motionless, the leaf unfolds. The lower portion of the pitcher plant is set with long bristles, inclined downward, like a certain kind of patented mouse-trap. Thus the unwary insect falls into the water with which the pitcher is partially filled.

To foreign countries was assigned about one-third of the entire space in Horticultural hall, and so great was the interest aroused that they would have taken the entire area had they been permitted. The first exhibit was received in the winter of 1892 from New South Wales, whose wines also received in midwinter were frozen and spoiled, but promptly replaced by other specimens.

Except for wood-pulp the Forestry exhibits contain no completely manufactured articles, though there are many in various stages of manufacture. In showing the structure and commercial value of woods, the usual method was to cut them into transverse, radial, and oblique sections, showing the heart and outer portions of the tree, leaving one-half of the specimen in its natural state, and polishing the remainder. There are also barks, gums, resins, and turpentines; lichens, mosses, and substances used for bedding and upholstering; specimens of herbs and roots having medicinal properties, and cork, both in rough sections, and partially manufactured. As a rule the states exhibit the wealth of their forests in their crude condition, while individuals display material in shapes which fall just short of manufactured products.

Not far from Machinery Hall, Michigan has a typical loggers� camp. Everything is built of logs, even to the large chimneys of the cabin. In and around the building are specimens of all the tools used by Michigan lumbermen, from the opening of the first camp down to the present time. The dining room is remarkably neat, as also are the bunks, with their frames made of tree limbs. Side-tracked near the model is a lumber car, piled high with hug logs. The load weighs nearly 290,000 pounds, contains more than 36,000 feet of lumber, and before being delivered to the railroad in Michigan, was drawn on a sleigh for a distance of a quarter of a mile by a single span of horses.

California�s exhibit in the Forestry building is a forcible reminder of the wonders of forest life on the Pacific coast. Attention first centres in the sequoia gigantea, as is called the king of all the big trees which have made California famous. They attain a height of 300 to 350 feet, and are the tallest conifers in the world, averaging fully twenty-five feet in diameter.

New South Wales and Mexico each claim to have within their domain the largest tree in the world. The Australian giant, a species of fig tree, is 495 feet high. Through the president of her commission, Mexico asserted that in the state of Oaxaca there was a tree of the leguminous species 53 feet in diameter, and while its height had not been ascertained, it was undoubtedly the king of the vegetable world. It has been christened Santa Maria del Tule.

Besides having one of the largest displays in the building, Missouri contributed to the colonnade of trunks which surrounds it, specimens of yellow pine, oak, red oak, cypress, hickory, red gum, and ash. According to state authorities, the counties lying along the Mississippi River might have furnished much larger samples than those presented at the Fair. Nevertheless they are large enough to impress the visitor with the commercial value of timber trees which, not many years ago, were viewed simply as impediments to the agricultural advancement of the state.

Of the western states perhaps Minnesota has aroused more general interest on the subject of forestry than any other, realizing, as she does, the evils resulting from the denudation of her timber tracts. Here it is well understood that aside from increasing the beauties of the state, arboriculture equalizes the temperature and rainfall, breaks the force of wind and flood, supplies material for fuel and fencing, and furnishes an ultimate supply of timber which must become most valuable if the natural wealth of the state continues to be drained.

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